hypnotism (hĬp´nətĬzəm) [Gr.,=putting to sleep], to induce an altered state of consciousness characterized by deep relaxation and heightened suggestibility. The term was originally coined by James Braid in 1842 to describe a phenomenon previously known as animal magnetism or mesmerism (see Mesmer, Friedrich Anton). Superficially resembling sleep, it is generally induced by the monotonous repetition of words and gestures while the subject is completely relaxed. Although almost everyone can be hypnotized, individuals vary greatly in susceptibility. The hypnotic state is characterized by heightened suggestibility and represents an altered state of consciousness as recent research has shown electrical changes occur in brain activity when a person is hypnotized. Ernest Hilgard's neodissociation theory (1977) has been influential in the explanation of hypnosis. Hilgard's theory asserts that several distinct states of consciousness can be present during hypnosis, such that certain actions may become dissociated from the conscious mind. In the late 19th cent., it was used by a number of medical practitioners, who found that individuals susceptible to hysteria are highly suggestible and can be put into deep hypnosis, sometimes leading to a cure. Sigmund Freud used the method in psychoanalysis. In recent years, hypnosis has been widely used by practitioners as an aid in medical practice and psychotherapy. Hypnosis is also used in some criminal investigations, to help defendants to recall events they might otherwise not remember.

See E. Hilgard and J. Hilgard, Hypnosis in the Relief of Pain (1984); D. Waxman et al., ed., Modern Trends in Hypnosis (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Hypnosis: Selected full-text books and articles

They Call It Hypnosis
Robert A. Baker.
Prometheus Books, 1990
Hypnotism: An Objective Study in Suggestibility
André M. Weitzenhoffer.
John Wiley & Sons, 1953
Hypnosis: Understanding How It Can Work for You
Sean F. Kelly; Reid J. Kelly.
Addison-Wesley, 1985
Hypnotherapy: A Handbook
Michael Heap; Windy Dryden.
Open University Press, 1991
Hypnotherapy and Hypnoanalysis
Daniel P. Brown; Erika Fromm.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986
Inner Strengths: Contemporary Psychotherapy and Hypnosis for Ego-Strengthening
Claire Frederick; Shirley McNeal.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999
Creative Mastery in Hypnosis and Hypnoanalysis: A Festschrift for Erika Fromm
Margot L. Fass; Daniel Brown.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990
Utilizing Ericksonian Hypnosis in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Practice
Zahourek, Rothlyn P.
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol. 38, No. 1, January-March 2002
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Manipulation of Human Behavior
Albert D. Biderman; Herbert Zimmer.
John Wiley & Sons, 1961
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "The Potential Uses of Hypnosis in Interrogation"
Entrancing Relationships: Exploring the Hypnotic Framework of Addictive Relationships
Don J. Feeney Jr.
Praeger, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "Hypnosis: Qualities and Dynamics of Trance" and Chap. 2 "Hypnotic Framework of Romantic Addictive Relationships"
A Model of the Mind: Explored by Hypnotically Controlled Experiments and Examined for Its Psychodynamic Implications
Gerald S. Blum.
Wiley, 1961
Treating Ad/hd with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy [1]
Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne.
Child Study Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1, March 2000
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