Psychosis

psychosis (sīkō´sĬs), in psychiatry, a broad category of mental disorder encompassing the most serious emotional disturbances, often rendering the individual incapable of staying in contact with reality. Until recently, the term was used in contrast with neurosis, which denoted the "mild" mental disorders which did not interfere significantly with the ability to function normally, or severely impair the individual's conception of reality. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association made sweeping changes in its classificatory system for psychological disorders, and the opposition between neurosis and psychosis became obsolete. The former classification included functional psychoses including schizophrenia, paranoia, bipolar disorder, and involutional psychotic reactions, where no brain change was detectable with available tools. Today, there are separate categories for schizophrenic disorders, mood disorders (which include bipolar disorder and major depression), and other serious mental disturbances such as delusional disorder. Symptoms of these disorders may include hallucinations and delusions; severe deviations of mood (depression and mania); lack of, or inappropriateness of, emotional response; and severe impairment of judgment. Another type of psychosis involves brief episodes, characterized by an acute onset lasting no longer than a month, usually resulting from situational circumstances such as an earthquake or flood. Nonspecified psychotic disorders include psychotic symptoms, e.g., delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized behavior, that cannot be classified in any other disorder. Drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy have been successful in the treatment of many patients with serious psychological disorders. Organic psychoses, so called because of the structural deterioration of the brain, include senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Occurring in middle to old age, these disorders involve progressive, nonreversible brain damage. Organic brain damage may also result from toxic reactions to such substances as alcohol, PCP, amphetamines, and crack cocaine. In criminal law, the term insanity can be applied to most forms of psychoses, although defenses based on insanity have been relatively rare.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Psychosis: Selected full-text books and articles

Experiencing Psychosis: Personal and Professional Perspectives By Jim Geekie; Patte Randal; Debra Lampshire; John Read Routledge, 2012
Psychotherapies for the Psychoses: Theoretical, Cultural and Clinical Integration By John F.M. Gleeson; Eóin Killackey; Helen Krstev Routledge, 2008
Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis: A Formulation-Based Approach By Anthony P. Morrison; Julia C. Renton; Hazel Dunn; Steve Williams; Richard P. Bentall Brunner-Routledge, 2004
Beyond Madness: Psychosocial Interventions in Psychosis By Joseph H. Berke; Margaret Fagan; George Mak-Pearce; Stella Pierides-Müller Jessica Kingsley, 2002
Vulnerability to Psychosis: From Neurosciences to Psychopathology By Paolo Fusar-Poli; Stefan J. Borgwardt; Philip McGuire Psychology Press, 2012
Art, Psychotherapy, and Psychosis By Katherine Killick; Joy Schaverien Routledge, 1997
Women's Mental Health in Primary Care By Kathryn J. Zerbe W. B. Saunders, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 12 "Psychosis"
Dynamics of Character: Self-Regulation in Psychopathology By David Shapiro Basic Books, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "Neurosis and Psychosis"
Transition to Psychosis: Evaluation of the First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Schizophrenia By Hormozpour, Mehdi; Amini, Homayoun; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Rahmani, Arash; Sharifi, Vandad Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2016
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Cannabis-Related Psychosis: Presentation and Effect of Abstinence By Kulhalli, Vani; Isaac, Mohan; Murthy, Pratima Indian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 49, No. 4, October-December 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychosis By Pankey, Julieann; Hayes, Steven C International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, Vol. 3, No. 2, December 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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