Behavioral Psychology

behaviorism

behaviorism, school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B. Watson, who insisted that behavior is a physiological reaction to environmental stimuli. He rejected the exploration of mental processes as unscientific. The conditioned-reflex experiments of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and the American psychologist Edward Thorndike were central to the development of behaviorism. The American behaviorist B. F. Skinner contended that all but a few emotions were conditioned by habit, and could be learned or unlearned. The therapeutic system of behavior modification has emerged from behaviorist theory. Therapy intends to shape behavior through a variety of processes known as conditioning. Popular techniques include systematic desensitization, generally used on clients suffering from anxiety or fear of an object or situation, and aversive conditioning, employed in cases where a client wishes to be broken of an unhealthy habit (such as smoking or drug abuse). Other behavior therapies include systems of rewards or punishments, and modeling, in which the client views situations in which healthy behaviors are shown to lead to rewards.

See B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (1965); J. B. Watson, Behaviorism (1930, repr. 1970); J. O'Donell, Origins of Behaviorism (1986); K. W. Buckley, Mechanical Man: John B. Watson and the Beginning of Behaviorism (1989).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Behavioral Psychology: Selected full-text books and articles

Behaviorism By Moore, J The Psychological Record, Vol. 61, No. 3, Summer 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Control: A History of Behavioral Psychology By John A. Mills New York University Press, 1998
Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy By Kevin A. Fall; Janice Miner Holder; Andre Marquis Brunner-Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Behavioral Counseling"
Approaches to Psychology By William E. Glassman; Marilyn Hadad Open University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Behaviourist Approach"
Psychological Behaviorism: A Path to the Grand Reunification of Psychology and Behavior Analysis? By Holth, Per The Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 4, No. 3, Summer 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Psychology: From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist By John B. Watson J.B. Lippincott Company, 1924 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: This book is by John B. Watson, who is considered to be the founder of behaviorism
An Integrative, Not Necessarily Comprehensive, Behavioral Model of Gambling By Dixon, Mark R.; Weatherly, Jeffrey N The Analysis of Gambling Behavior, Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
New Directions in Human Associative Learning By A. J. Wills Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005
The Forms and Functions of Impulsive Actions: Implications for Behavioral Assessment and Therapy By Farmer, Richard F.; Golden, Jeannie A The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring 2009
The Continuity Strategy, Human Behavior, and Behavior Analysis By Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot The Psychological Record, Vol. 53, No. 3, Summer 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Psychology of Environmental Problems By Deborah Du Nann Winter; Susan M. Koger Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Behavioral Psychology"
Alternatives to Cognition: A New Look at Explaining Human Social Behavior By Christina Lee Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Unseating Cognition: Behavior Independent of Conscious Thought"
A Behaviorist Looks at Form Recognition By William R. Uttal Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
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