Behavioral Psychology

behaviorism

behaviorism, school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B. Watson, who insisted that behavior is a physiological reaction to environmental stimuli. He rejected the exploration of mental processes as unscientific. The conditioned-reflex experiments of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and the American psychologist Edward Thorndike were central to the development of behaviorism. The American behaviorist B. F. Skinner contended that all but a few emotions were conditioned by habit, and could be learned or unlearned. The therapeutic system of behavior modification has emerged from behaviorist theory. Therapy intends to shape behavior through a variety of processes known as conditioning. Popular techniques include systematic desensitization, generally used on clients suffering from anxiety or fear of an object or situation, and aversive conditioning, employed in cases where a client wishes to be broken of an unhealthy habit (such as smoking or drug abuse). Other behavior therapies include systems of rewards or punishments, and modeling, in which the client views situations in which healthy behaviors are shown to lead to rewards.

See B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (1965); J. B. Watson, Behaviorism (1930, repr. 1970); J. O'Donell, Origins of Behaviorism (1986); K. W. Buckley, Mechanical Man: John B. Watson and the Beginning of Behaviorism (1989).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Behavioral Psychology: Selected full-text books and articles

Behaviorism
Moore, J.
The Psychological Record, Vol. 61, No. 3, Summer 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Control: A History of Behavioral Psychology
John A. Mills.
New York University Press, 1998
Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Kevin A. Fall; Janice Miner Holder; Andre Marquis.
Brunner-Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Behavioral Counseling"
Approaches to Psychology
William E. Glassman; Marilyn Hadad.
Open University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Behaviourist Approach"
Psychological Behaviorism: A Path to the Grand Reunification of Psychology and Behavior Analysis?
Holth, Per.
The Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 4, No. 3, Summer 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The War between Mentalism and Behaviorism: On the Accessibility of Mental Processes
William R. Uttal.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000
Psychology: From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
John B. Watson.
J.B. Lippincott Company, 1924 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: This book is by John B. Watson, who is considered to be the founder of behaviorism
An Integrative, Not Necessarily Comprehensive, Behavioral Model of Gambling
Dixon, Mark R.; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.
The Analysis of Gambling Behavior, Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
New Directions in Human Associative Learning
A. J. Wills.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005
The Forms and Functions of Impulsive Actions: Implications for Behavioral Assessment and Therapy
Farmer, Richard F.; Golden, Jeannie A.
The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring 2009
The Continuity Strategy, Human Behavior, and Behavior Analysis
Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot.
The Psychological Record, Vol. 53, No. 3, Summer 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Psychology of Environmental Problems
Deborah Du Nann Winter; Susan M. Koger.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Behavioral Psychology"
Alternatives to Cognition: A New Look at Explaining Human Social Behavior
Christina Lee.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Unseating Cognition: Behavior Independent of Conscious Thought"
A Behaviorist Looks at Form Recognition
William R. Uttal.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
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