emotion, term commonly and loosely used to denote individual, subjective feelings which dictate moods. In psychology, emotion is considered a response to stimuli that involves characteristic physiological changes—such as increase in pulse rate, rise in body temperature, greater or less activity of certain glands, change in rate of breathing—and tends in itself to motivate the individual toward further activity. Early psychological studies of emotion tried to determine whether a certain emotion arose before the action, simultaneously with it, or as a response to automatic physiological processes. In the 1960s, the Schachter-Singer theory pointed out that cognitive processes, not just physiological reactions, played a significant role in determining emotions. Robert Plutchik developed (1980) a theory showing eight primary human emotions: joy, acceptance, fear, submission, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation, and argued that all human emotions can be derived from these. Psychologists Sylvan Tomkins (1963) and Paul Ekman (1982) have contended that "basic" emotions can be quantified because all humans employ the same facial muscles when expressing a particular emotion. Studies done by Ekman suggest that muscular feedback from a facial expression characteristic of a certain emotion results in the experience of that emotion. Since emotions are abstract and subjective, however, they remain difficult to quantify: some theories point out that non-Western cultural groups experience emotions quite distinct from those generally seen as "basic" in the West.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Emotion: Selected full-text books and articles

The Emotions: A Philosophical Exploration
Peter Goldie.
Clarendon Press, 2000
Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Robert D. Kavanaugh; Betty Zimmerberg; Steven Fein.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996
Handbook of Cognition and Emotion
Tim Dalgleish; Mick J. Power.
Wiley, 1999
The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions
Paul Ekman; Richard J. Davidson.
Oxford University Press, 1994
Emotions and Needs
Dawn Freshwater; Chris Robertson.
Open University Press, 2002
Mood and Temperament
David Watson.
Guilford Press, 2000
Passion and Reason: Making Sense of Our Emotions
Richard S. Lazarus; Bernice N. Lazarus.
Oxford University Press, 1996
What Emotions Really Are: The Problem of Psychological Categories
Paul E. Griffiths.
The University of Chicago Press, 1997
Emotions at Work: Theory, Research, and Applications in Management
Roy L. Payne; Cary L. Cooper.
Wiley, 2001
The Psychology of Emotion: From Everyday Life to Theory
K. T. Strongman.
Wiley, 2003
Emotion and Consciousness
Lisa Feldman Barrett; Paula M. Niedenthal; Piotr Winkielman.
Guilford Press, 2005
Emotions: An Essay in Aid of Moral Psychology
Robert C. Roberts.
Cambridge University Press, 2003
The Hidden Genius of Emotion: Lifespan Transformations of Personality
Carol Magai; Jeannette Haviland-Jones.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
Emotional Expression and Health
Ivan Nykliek; Lydia Temoshok; Ad Vingerhoets.
Brunner-Routledge, 2004
The Verbal Communication of Emotions: Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Susan R. Fussell.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
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