genealogy (jē´nēŏl´əjē, –ăl´–, jĕ–), the study of family lineage. Genealogies have existed since ancient times. Family lineage was originally transmitted through oral tradition and later, with the invention of writing, was passed on through written records. The genealogies in the Bible probably originated in oral tradition. Ancient Greeks and Romans traced their ancestry to gods and heroes, and traditional tribes often claim descent from animals. Genealogies flourished in the Middle Ages because the development of feudalism made status and the transference of possessions dependent upon the tracing of family lines. To a lesser degree, this condition continues in some countries, as England, to the present day. Examples of English genealogies are the books of Burke, Collins, and others on the peerage.

In the United States, pedigree per se has not been crucial in determining status or in transferring property, but race formerly served as a great social divider (e.g., blacks were formerly enslaved in the South and were later denied their civil rights and prohibited from marrying whites in many states). In more limited situations, genealogy has had a degree of importance in the United States: Some societies limit membership to descendants of a particular group of ancestors; the Mormons collect genealogical information for religious purposes and have established a large Family History Library; and some families keep careful genealogical records and stage periodic reunions.

Since the 18th cent. genealogy has developed into a subsidiary academic discipline, serving sociology, history, medicine, and law. Libraries often have departments of genealogy, where volumes used in genealogical research are kept (e.g., passenger ship lists, immigration records, family genealogies, etc.); many historical societies also have such libraries. Many genealogical materials, such as those compiled by the Mormons, are now available for research on the World Wide Web.

See D. L. Jacobus, Genealogy as Pastime and Profession (2d ed. 1968); T. Bestermann, Family History (1971); V. D. Greenwood, The Researcher's Guide to American Genealogy (1974); G. H. Doane and J. B. Bell, Searching for Your Ancestors (6th ed. 1992).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Genealogy: Selected full-text books and articles

The Oxford Guide to Family History
David Hey.
Oxford University Press, 1998
English Genealogy
Anthony Richard Wagner; Richmond Herald.
Clarendon Press, 1960
Dwelling in the Archive: Women Writing House, Home, and History in Late Colonial India
Antoinette Burton.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Oral Tradition as History
Jan Vansina.
University of Wisconsin Press, 1985
Librarian’s tip: "Sources for Dating: Lists and Genealogies" begins on p. 178
North Pole Legacy: Black, White & Eskimo
S. Allen Counter.
University of Massachusetts Press, 1991
The Family in Global Transition
Gordon L. Anderson.
Professors World Peace Academy, 1997
Families, History, and Social Change: Life Course and Cross-Cultural Perspectives
Tamara K. Hareven.
Westview Press, 2000
The Family in the Western World from the Black Death to the Industrial Age
Beatrice Gottlieb.
Oxford University Press, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Kinship" and Chap. 10 "The Linking of Generations"
The Family among the Australian Aborigines: A Sociological Study
B. Malinowski.
Schocken Books, 1963
Down to Earth: The Territorial Bond in South China
David Faure; Helen F. Siu.
Stanford University, 1995
Creoles of Color in the Bayou Country
Carl A. Brasseaux; Keith P. Fontenot; Claude F. Oubre.
University Press of Mississippi, 1996
The Heritage of the Conquistadors: Ruling Classes in Central America from the Conquest to the Sandinistas
Richard E. Greenleaf; Samuel Z. Stone.
University of Nebraska Press, 1990
Haven in a Heartless World: The Family Besieged
Christopher Lasch.
Basic Books, 1979
The World of John Cleaveland: Family and Community in Eighteenth-Century New England
Christopher M. Jedrey.
W. W. Norton, 1979
The Sacred Willow: Four Generations in the Life of a Vietnamese Family
Duong Van Mai Elliott.
Oxford University Press, 1999
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