archetype (är´kĬtīp´) [Gr. arch=first, typos=mold], term whose earlier meaning, "original model," or "prototype," has been enlarged by C. G. Jung and by several contemporary literary critics. A Jungian archetype is a thought pattern that finds worldwide parallels, either in cultures (for example, the similarity of the ritual of Holy Communion in Europe with the tecqualo in ancient Mexico) or in individuals (a child's concept of a parent as both heroic and tyrannic, superman and ogre). Jung believed that such archetypal images and ideas reside in the unconscious level of the mind of every human being and are inherited from the ancestors of the race. They form the substance of the collective unconscious. Literary critics such as Northrop Frye and Maud Bodkin use the term archetype interchangeably with the term motif, emphasizing that the role of these elements in great works of literature is to unite readers with otherwise dispersed cultures and eras.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Archetypes: Selected full-text books and articles

Archetypal Explorations: An Integrative Approach to Human Behavior
Richard M. Gray.
Routledge, 1996
Archetype Revisited: An Updated Natural History of the Self
Anthony Stevens.
Brunner-Routledge, 2002 (2nd edition)
Myth, Mind, and the Screen: Understanding the Heroes of Our Times
John Izod.
Cambridge University Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Archetypal Images: Signification and the Psyche" and Chap. 3 "Archetypal Images: Symbols and the Cultural Unconscious"
Four Archetypes: Mother, Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster
C. G. Jung; R.F.C Hull.
Princeton University Press, 2010
Prometheus: Archetypal Image of Human Existence
C. Kerényi; Ralph Manheim.
Bollingen Foundation, 1963
Sexual Archetypes, East and West
Bina Gupta.
Paragon Press, 1987
Jungian Reflections within the Cinema: A Psychological Analysis of Sci-Fi and Fantasy Archetypes
James F. Iaccino.
Praeger, 1998
Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films
James F. Iaccino.
Praeger, 1994
Studies of Type-Images in Poetry, Religion, and Philosophy
Maud Bodkin.
Oxford University Press, 1951
The Fatal Hero: Diana, Deity of the Moon, as an Archetype of the Modern Hero in English Literature
Gil Haroian-Guerin.
Peter Lang, 1996
Archetype, Architecture, and the Writer
Bettina L. Knapp.
Indiana University Press, 1986
When the Body Speaks: The Archetypes in the Body
Mara Sidoli; Phyllis Blakemore.
Routledge, 2000
The Two Million-Year-Old Self
Anthony Stevens.
Texas A&M University Press, 1993
Librarian’s tip: "The Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious" begins on p. 11
The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry
Henri F. Ellenberger.
Basic Books, 1970
Librarian’s tip: "The Collective Unconscious and the Archetypes" begins on p. 705
Freud and Jung on Religion
Michael Palmer.
Routledge, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "God as Archetype of the Collective Unconscious" and "The Theory of Archetypes" begins on p. 172
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