druids (drōō´Ĭdz), priests of ancient Celtic Britain, Ireland, and Gaul and probably of all ancient Celtic peoples, known to have existed at least since the 3d cent. BC. Information about them is derived almost exclusively from the testimony of Roman authors, notably Julius Caesar, and from Old Irish sagas, supplemented to some extent by archaeological evidence. The druids constituted a priestly upper class in command of a highly ritualistic religion, which apparently centered on the worship of a pantheon of nature deities. Druids were also responsible for the education of the young and generally for the intellectual life of the community; although apparently literate, they taught by oral transmission, and their courses are said to have lasted as long as 20 years. The druids believed in immortality of the soul in a nonjudgmental world of the dead. Their religious ceremonies seem to have been performed chiefly in tree groves (the oak and the mistletoe that grows on the oak were held sacred) and at river sources and lakes. The druids performed animal and human sacrifices and practiced divination and other forms of magic. Tacitus mentions a Celtic tribe, the Bructeri, that was led by a prophetess, and Irish legend confirms that there were women druids, although their precise role is not known. According to Caesar, the druids in Gaul were organized into a federation or brotherhood that extended across tribal divisions and was headed by an archdruid; they met once a year, probably on the site of Chartres, to arbitrate private and intertribal disputes. They thus wielded great political power and were an important cohesive force among the Celtic tribes. The druids in Gaul were the core of the rebellions against Rome. Their power, although broken by the Romans, finally yielded only to Christianity. In the late 18th and 19th cent., interest in the druids was spurred by archaeological discoveries and by the romantic movement. The megalithic monuments of France and Great Britain, notably those at Carnac and Stonehenge, were once ascribed to them, but these are now known to predate Celtic culture.

See S. Piggott, The Druids (1968, repr. 1985); A. Ross, Druids, Gods, and Heroes (1986); W. Rutherford, The Druids: Magicians of the West (1986).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Druids: Selected full-text books and articles

The Druids: Priests of the Ancient Celts By Paul R. Lonigan Greenwood Press, 1996
Celts and the Classical World By David Rankin Routledge, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 14 "Religion and the Druids"
Belief, Legend and Perceptions of the Sacred in Contemporary Bath By Bowman, Marion Folklore, Vol. 109, Annual 1998
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Architecture as Experience: Radical Changes in Spatial Practice By Dana Arnold; Andrew Ballantyne Routledge, 2004
Librarian's tip: "Druids" begins on p. 18
The Making of Stonehenge By Rodney Castleden Routledge, 1993
Librarian's tip: "Stonehenge as a Druid Temple" begins on p. 14 and "The Druids" begins on p. 238
Shamans/Neo-Shamans: Contested Ecstasies, Alternative Archaeologies, and Contemporary Pagans By Robert J. Wallis Routledge, 2003
Librarian's tip: Discussion of the Druids begins on p. 83
British Identities before Nationalism: Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800 By Colin Kidd Cambridge University Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Discussion of the Druids begins on p. 205
FREE! Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar By T. Rice Holmes Clarendon Press, 1907
Librarian's tip: Discussion of the Druids begins on p. 289
Visions of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Fifteenth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts By Allienne R. Becker Greenwood Press, 1996
Librarian's tip: Discussion of the Druids begins on p. 72
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