dharma (där´mə). In Hinduism, dharma is the doctrine of the religious and moral rights and duties of each individual; it generally refers to religious duty, but may also mean social order, right conduct, or simply virtue. Sacred law is the codification of dharma, and Hinduism itself is also called Sanatana Dharma [the eternal dharma]. In Buddhism, dharma has two distinct meanings: it refers to religious truth, namely Buddhist teaching as the highest truth; it is also used as a technical term to denote a constituent element of experience, or any existing thing or phenomenon.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Dharma: Selected full-text books and articles

Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative
Alf Hiltebeitel.
Oxford University Press, 2011
The Dharmasutras: The Law Codes of Apastamba, Gautama, Baudhayana, and Vasistha
Patrick Olivelle; Patrick Olivelle.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Manu Dharma S'astra: A Sociological and Historical Study
Kewal Motwani; Ernest Wood.
Ganesh & Co., 1958
Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma
Leon Hurvitz.
Columbia University Press, 1976
Buddhism Observed: Travelers, Exiles and Tibetan Dharma in Kathmandu
Peter Moran.
Routledge, 2004
Fundamentals of Mainstream Buddhism
Eric Cheetham.
Charles E. Tuttle, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Part Three "The Dharma: Ends, Means, and Views"
Ideas of Social Order in the Ancient World
Vilho Harle.
Greenwood Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Dharma and Caste as the Basis of Social Order"
Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present
Lloyd Ridgeon.
RoutledgeCurzon, 2003
Librarian’s tip: "Dharma: Norms of Conduct" begins on p. 40
R. C. Zaehner.
Oxford University Press, 1966 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Dharma"
Westward Dharma: Buddhism beyond Asia
Charles S. Prebish; Martin Baumann.
University of California Press, 2002
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