Sikhism (sĬk´Ĭzəm), religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide some 19 million. Some 300,000 Sikhs live in Britain, and there are smaller communities in North America, Australia, and Singapore. By the late 1990s Sikhism was the world's fifth largest faith and had some 175,000 U.S. adherents and 225,000 in Canada. Sikhism is heterodox, combining the teachings of Bhakti Hinduism and Islamic Sufism.

The founder and first Sikh guru, the mystic Nanak (c.1469–c.1539), proclaimed monotheism, the provisional nature of organized religion, and direct realization of God through religious exercises and meditation; he opposed idolatry, ritual, an organized priesthood, and the caste system. Angad (1504–52), the second guru, separated the ascetics (udasis) from the laity, eliminated most features of Hinduism, and introduced the Gurmukhi script. Under the fourth guru, Ram Das, Amritsar was founded as a sacred city. Arjun, the fifth guru, compiled devotional poetry by earlier Sikh gurus and other prominent saints into the Sikh scripture, the Adigranth, which remains central to Sikh religious life. Under succeeding gurus the Sikh community gradually united and began to develop military power; the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb responded by executing the ninth guru and ordering the destruction of Sikh temples.

In 1699, Govind Singh (1666–1708), the tenth and final guru, instituted certain practices that have become fundamental to Sikh identity. Through an initiatory rite, after which the initiate takes the surname Singh [lion], he created the military fraternity called the Khalsa, or "pure," whose ideal was the soldier-saint. He introduced the Sikh practices of wearing a turban, carrying a dagger, and never cutting the hair or beard.

By the late 18th cent. the Sikhs had conquered most of the Punjab and established various feudal states; their greatest leader was Ranjit Singh (1780–1839), who established a Sikh kingdom in the Punjab. After his death, conflict with the British caused the Sikh Wars and the subjugation of the Punjab, after which Sikh soldiers formed a significant part of the British armies in India. Despite Sikh protests, the 1947 partition of the Indian subcontinent divided their homeland. Militant Sikhs and Hindu Jats fought the Muslims of Punjab in a struggle that resulted in over a million casualties. Some 2.5 million Sikhs migrated from West Punjab (in Pakistan) into East Punjab (in India). The years immediately following partition brought a period of relative stability and prosperity.

More recently, militant Sikhs have called for an autonomous Sikh state, Khalistan, within or separate from India. Turmoil in the Punjab erupted in the early 1980s, marked most dramatically by the 1984 storming by the Indian Army of the Golden Temple at Amritsar, which had been taken over by militant Sikhs. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards in reprisal, after which mobs (some incited by local Congress party leaders) massacred Sikhs throughout India: in Delhi alone, more than 3,000 Sikhs were killed. Religious hostilities and communal violence in the Punjab continued into the early 1990s.


See K. Singh, A History of the Sikhs (2 vol., 1963–66); J. D. Cunningham, A History of the Sikhs (repr. 1966); G. Singh, The Religion of the Sikhs (1971); W. H. McLeod, Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion (1976); J. O'Connell, ed., Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century (1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Sikhism: Selected full-text books and articles

Living Religions and Modern Thought
Alban G. Widgery.
Round Table Press, 1936
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Jainism and Sikhism"
Faiths Men Live By
John Clark Archer.
Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1938
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 13 "Sikhs and Their Religion"
Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions
Peggy Morgan; Clive Lawton.
Edinburgh University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Section C "Sikhism"
Ethnic Conflict in India: A Case-Study of Punjab
Gurharpal Singh.
Macmillan Press, 2000
Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants
Cynthia Keppley Mahmood.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997
Information and Behavior in a Sikh Village: Social Organization Reconsidered
Murray J. Leaf.
University of California Press, 1972
Divide and Quit
Penderel Moon.
University of California Press, 1962
Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India
Mandakranta Bose.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Moral Development Theories-- Secular and Religious: A Comparative Study
R. Murray Thomas.
Greenwood Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "Hinduism and Derivatives-- Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism"
Philosophers and Religious Leaders
Christian D. Von Dehsen.
Oryx Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Includes "Nanak Founder of Sikhism 1469-1539", "Gobind Singh: Founder of Khalsa Sect of Sikhism 1666-1708" and "Arjun Fifth Sikh Guru: Compiler of the Adi Granth 1563-1606"
The Making of Sikh Scripture
Gurinder Singh Mann.
Oxford University Press, 2001
FREE! Great Religions of the World
Oskar Mann; A. C. Lyall; D. Menant; Lepel Griffin; Frederic Harrison; E. Denison Ross; Herbert A. Giles; T. W. Rhys Davids.
Harper & Brothers, 1901
Librarian’s tip: "Sikhism and the Sikhs"
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