Franciscan Order


Franciscans (frănsĬs´kənz), members of several Roman Catholic religious orders following the rule of St. Francis (approved by Honorius III, 1223). There are now three organizations of Franciscan friars: the Friars Minor [Lat. abbr., O.F.M.] (the second largest order in the Roman Catholic Church; only the Jesuit order is larger), formerly called the Observants; the Friars Minor Capuchin (see Capuchins), the fourth largest of the great religious orders; and the Friars Minor Conventual [Lat. abbr., O.M.C.]. Within 50 years of St. Francis's foundation, the order had a very strong wing of zealots—the Spirituals, who advocated absolute poverty, thus deploring the convents or any settled life. They allied themselves with the anarchical monks who were preaching the teachings of Joachim of Fiore. St. Bonaventure tried to reconcile the factions of the order, but the Spirituals grew stronger and saw one of their heroes made pope as St. Celestine V. His abdication made their agitation one of the major social and religious problems of Italy. So far as the order was concerned, John XXII settled (1322) the matter by putting the Franciscans on a level with every other order with respect to owning property corporately. He also put a stop (1323) to a Franciscan boast that their way was more nearly perfect than any other. However, within the order there still remained a desire for reform, and in the following years a movement developed toward restoring primitive practice. The friars of this tendency (Observants) gained recognition within the order and eventually were made independent (1517) by Leo X. Soon afterward a movement among the Observants established the Capuchins (1525) as a still stricter adherence to the rule. All the Franciscan orders have shared in home and foreign missions; the Franciscans were in many parts of America the dominant missionaries. They have had a continuous role in education and were leaders in medieval university life. They have had a major place in preaching among Catholics: from them come the Stations of the Cross and the Christmas Crib. Since the 15th cent. the Observants have been charged with the care of Roman Catholic interests in the Holy Places in Palestine. Besides the friars, the Franciscans include the Poor Clares, the order of nuns founded by St. Clare, and countless members of the third order (see tertiary), an order consisting of both men and women, some of whom live in communities and many of whom live in the world. There are scores of religious communities of sisters of every sort of charitable mission who are regular Franciscan tertiaries. Of canonized and beatified saints, far more have been Franciscans than members of any other order. The best-known of them is perhaps St. Anthony of Padua. The Franciscans were called Gray Friars. Their habit is now typically brown. For the place of Franciscans among orders, see monasticism.

See studies by J. Moorman (1968), K. Esser (tr. 1970), and T. MacVicar (1986).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Franciscan Order: Selected full-text books and articles

The Franciscans in England, 1224-1538 By Edward Hutton Constable & company, ltd., 1926
Revisiting the Franciscan Doctrine of Christ By Delio, Ilia Theological Studies, Vol. 64, No. 1, March 2003
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Refounding in the Franciscan Tradition By Anthony M. Carrozzo Franciscan Institute, 1994
Angels & Angelology in the Middle Ages By David Keck Oxford University Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. Seven "Franciscan Angelology and the Crises of the Franciscan Order"
Rabelais and the Franciscans By A. J. Krailsheimer Clarendon Press, 1963
Franciscan Beginnings in Colonial Peru By Antonine Tibesar Academy of American Franciscan History, 1953
Between Resistance and Adaptation: Indigenous Peoples and the Colonisation of Choco 1510-1753 By Caroline A. Williams Liverpool University Press, 2004
Librarian's tip: Chap. Four "Conversion and Control: The Franciscans in the Choco, 1673-1677"
The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom By Grant D. Jones Stanford University Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. Six "Franciscans on the Camino Real"
The Timucuan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida By John E. Worth University Press of Florida, vol.2, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 6 "Implementation and Resistance: Rebolledo vs. the Franciscans"
The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries By Christopher Dawson Ams Press, 1980
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Apocalyptic Spirituality: Treatises and Letters of Lactantius, Adso of Montier-En-Der, Joachim of Fiore, the Franciscan Spirituals, Savonarola By Bernard McGinn Paulist Press, 1979
Librarian's tip: Part IV "The Franciscan Spirituals"
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
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