atonement, the reconciliation, or "at-one-ment," of sinful humanity with God. In Judaism both the Bible and rabbinical thought reflect the belief that God's chosen people must be pure to remain in communion with God. The Bible prescribed Temple sacrifice for the removal of sin and uncleanliness. The prophets taught that outward sacrifice must be accompanied by interior purification to be complete. With the destruction of the Temple and the consequent cessation of the sacrifice focus came to be placed on the religious life of the individual who sought to be reconciled with God through prayer, repentance, charity, and suffering. In the Jewish calendar, atonement for all but very serious sins came on the Day of Atonement (see Yom Kippur). In Christian theology, various doctrines of atonement have been advanced in history, all of which give central place to the life and death of Jesus. The classical theory of atonement, widely accepted in the early Church, depicted Jesus as the divine victor in a cosmic struggle with the devil for rights over the human soul. In medieval Latin theology emphasis shifted from the divine to the human side of Jesus. The most widely held theory at this time, often called vicarious atonement, was first stated by St. Anselm in Why God Became Human (1197–98): only human beings can rightfully repay the debt which was incurred through their willful disobedience to God, although only God can make the infinite satisfaction necessary to repay it; therefore God must send the God-man, Jesus Christ, to satisfy both these conditions. Anselm's doctrine, slightly altered or elaborated, has become part of Roman Catholic theology and of that of many Protestant churches. In another theory of atonement emphasis is placed on God's unconditional mercy and on the gradual growth toward union with God as inspired by Christ's selfless example. This theory was given its standard form by Peter Abelard in the 12th cent. Here the juridical concept is replaced by an organic and social concept. The tendency today in the Church is not to regard any single interpretation of atonement as all-embracing but to view Christ's atoning work from a variety of vantage points.

See G. Aulén, Christus Victor (tr. 1931); F. W. Dillistone, The Christian Understanding of Atonement (1968).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Atonement: Selected full-text books and articles

The Doctrine of the Atonement By Leonard Hodgson Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951
Responsibility and Atonement By Richard Swinburne Clarendon Press, 1989
The Theology of the Oral Torah: Revealing the Justice of God By Jacob Neusner McGill-Queens University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "Repentance and Atonement"
The Character of God: Recovering the Lost Literary Power of American Protestantism By Thomas E. Jenkins Oxford University Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "The Atonement" begins on p. 25
The Yom Kippur Anthology By Philip Goodman Jewish Publication Society of America, 1971
Reason and the Christian Religion: Essays in Honour of Richard Swinburne By Richard Swinburne; Alan G. Padgett Oxford University, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Part IV "Atonement"
The Essentials of Mysticism and Other Essays By Evelyn Underhill J. M. Dent & Sons, 1920
Librarian’s tip: "Mysticism And The Doctrine of Atonement" begins on p. 44
The Word and the Christ: An Essay in Analytic Christology By Richard Sturch Clarendon Press, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "The Implications of Universal Revelation and Atonement"
Religion and Human Nature By Keith Ward Oxford University Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "The Doctrine of Atonement"
The Historical Christ and the Jesus of Faith: The Incarnational Narrative as History By C. Stephen Evans Clarendon Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Why the Events Matter: God's Atoning Work"
Handbook of Rabbinic Theology: Language, System, Structure By Jacob Neusner Brill, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Twelve "Israel and Adam, the Land and Eden, Sin and Atonement"
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