Calvinism, term used in several different senses. It may indicate the teachings expressed by John Calvin himself; it may be extended to include all that developed from his doctrine and practice in Protestant countries in social, political, and ethical, as well as theological, aspects of life and thought; or it may be employed as the name of that system of doctrine accepted by the Reformed churches (see Presbyterianism), i.e., the Protestant churches called Reformed in distinction from those professing Lutheran doctrines (see also Reformed churches). Early Calvinism differed from Lutheranism in its rejection of consubstantiation regarding the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in its rigid doctrine of predestination, in its notion of grace as irresistible, and in its theocratic view of the state. Luther believed in the political subordination of the church to the state; Calvinism produced the church-dominated societies of Geneva and Puritan New England. Calvinism, stressing the absolute sovereignty of God's will, held that only those whom God specifically elects are saved, that this election is irresistible, and that individuals can do nothing to effect this salvation. This strict Calvinism was challenged by Jacobus Arminius, whose more moderate views were adopted by the Methodists and the Baptists. Calvinism challenged Lutheranism throughout Europe, spread to Scotland, influenced the Puritans of England, and received its expression in the United States in the modified New England theology of the elder Jonathan Edwards. The doctrinal aspects of Calvinism receded under the rationalism of the 18th and 19th cent. In more recent times, however, in the Reformed theology of Karl Barth, the Calvinist stress on the sovereignty of God found new and vital expression.

See J. T. McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism (1954, repr. 1967); B. G. Armstrong, Calvinism and the Amyraut Heresy (1969); M. Prestwich, ed., International Calvinism, 1541–1715 (1987).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Calvinism: Selected full-text books and articles

Lectures on Calvinism By Abraham Kuyper Eerdmans, 2002
Calvin and His Influence, 1509-2009 By Irena Backus; Philip Benedict Oxford University Press, 2011
The History and Character of Calvinism By John T. McNeill Oxford University Press, 1967
Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age By R. Po-Chia Hsia; Henk Van Nierop Cambridge University Press, 2002
John Calvin's American Legacy By Thomas J. Davis Oxford University Press, 2010
Calvin's Comeback? the Irresistible Reformer By Billings, J. Todd The Christian Century, Vol. 126, No. 24, December 1, 2009
The Compatibility of Calvinism and Middle Knowledge By Laing, John D Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 47, No. 3, September 2004
Calvin: Theological Treatises By John Calvin; J. K. S. Reid Westminster Press, 1954
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Calvin in Context By David C. Steinmetz Oxford University Press, 1995
Virtue, Learning, and the Scottish Enlightenment: Ideas of Scholarship in Early Modern History By David Allan Edinburgh University Press, 1993
Librarian's tip: Chap. One "'Mighty Heroes in Learning' Calvinism and the Humanist Historian"
The Knowledge of God in Calvin's Theology By Edward A. Dowey Jr Columbia University Press, 1952
Participation, Democracy, and the Split in Revolutionary Calvinism, 1641-1646 By Moore, Tod; Maddox, Graham Nebula, Vol. 7, No. 4, December 2010
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