William Tyndale

William Tyndale (all: tĬn´dəl), c.1494–1536, English biblical translator (see Bible) and Protestant martyr. He was probably ordained shortly before entering (c.1521) the household of Sir John Walsh of Gloucestershire as chaplain and tutor. His sympathy with the new learning led to disputes with the clergy, and he moved to London, determined to translate the New Testament into English. Finding that publication could not be accomplished in England, Tyndale went to Hamburg in 1524, visited Martin Luther in Wittenberg, and at Cologne began (1525) the printing of the New Testament. Interrupted by an injunction, he had the edition completed at Worms. When copies entered England, they were denounced by the bishops and suppressed (1526); Cardinal Wolsey ordered Tyndale seized at Worms. Living in concealment, Tyndale pursued his translation, issuing the Pentateuch (1530) and the Book of Jonah (1536). His work was later the basis of the King James Version of the Bible. His tracts in defense of the principles of the English Reformation, The Obedience of a Christian Man (1528) and The Parable of the Wicked Mammon (1528), were denounced by Sir Thomas More. The Practice of Prelates (1530), condemning the divorce of Henry VIII, drew the wrath of the king. Occupied with revising his translations, Tyndale was seized (1535) in Antwerp and confined in Vilvoorde Castle, near Brussels. His trial ended in condemnation for heresy, and he was strangled at the stake before his body was burned.

See biographies by J. F. Mozley (1937) and C. H. Williams (1969); study by E. W. Cleaveland (1911, repr. 1972).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

William Tyndale: Selected full-text books and articles

Political Thought in England: Tyndale to Hooker By Christopher Morris Oxford University Press, 1953
Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution Revisited By Christopher Hill Clarendon Press, 1997 (Revised edition)
Librarian's tip: Chap. 10 "William Tyndale and English History"
Luther's Legacy: Salvation and English Reformers, 1525-1556 By Carl R. Trueman Clarendon Press, 1994
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "William Tyndale"
A History of the English Bible as Literature By David Norton Cambridge University Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: "William Tyndale: Introduction" begins on p. 10
Henry VIII and the Reformation By H. Maynard Smith MacMillan, 1948
Librarian's tip: "The Holy Bible and the Life of Tyndale, 1495-1536" begins on p. 276
Reformation Views of Church History By Glanmor Williams John Knox Press, 1970
Librarian's tip: Chap. II "The English Pioneer: William Tyndale"
Man's Unconquerable Mind: Studies of English Writers: From Bede to A. E. Housman and W. P. Ker By R. W. Chambers Jonathan Cape, 1939
Librarian's tip: Chap. VI "Martyrs of the Reformation: More and Tyndale"
English Literature in the Sixteenth Century: Excluding Drama By C. S. Lewis Clarendon Press, 1954
Librarian's tip: Discussion of William Tyndale begins on p. 181
The Reformation in England By Philip Hughes Macmillan, 1951
Librarian's tip: Discussion of William Tyndale begins on p. 131
English Reformations: Religion, Politics, and Society under the Tudors By Christopher Haigh Clarendon Press, 1993
Librarian's tip: Discussion of William Tyndale begins on p. 59
Life and Letters in Tudor and Stuart England By Louis B. Wright; Virginia A. Lamar Cornell University Press, 1962
Librarian's tip: Discussion of William Tyndale begins on p. 189
"The Light of Printing": William Tyndale, John Foxe, John Day, and Early Modern Print Culture [*] By King, John N Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 1, Spring 2001
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