Shakers, popular name for members of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, also called the Millennial Church. Members of the movement, who received their name from the trembling produced by religious emotion, were also known as Alethians. The movement originated in a Quaker revival in England in 1747, and was led by James and Jane Wardley. However, the sect, then known as the Shaking Quakers, grew strong only after the appearance of Ann Lee. Imprisoned for her zeal, she believed herself the recipient of the mother element of the spirit of Christ. Following a vision, she and eight followers emigrated (1774) to New York state and in 1776 founded a colony at Watervliet, near Albany. Mother Ann, as she was known, gained a number of converts, who after her death (1784) began the formation of Shaker communities. By 1826 there were 18 Shaker communities in eight states, as far west as Indiana. After 1860, Shakerism began to decline; by 2000 it was almost nonexistent, with a tiny community in New Gloucester, Maine, constituting the only active Shaker village in the country. One of the fundamental doctrines of the society was belief in the dual nature of the Deity. The male principle was incarnated in Jesus; the female principle, in Mother Ann. Other tenets were celibacy, open confession of sins, communal ownership of possessions in the advanced groups, separation from the world, pacifism, equality of the sexes, and consecrated work. Singing, dancing, and marching characterized phases of Shaker worship. The community was organized into groups, called families, of between 30 and 90 individuals. The believers donated their services and possessions but were always free to leave. Shaker furniture and handcrafts are noted for their fine design and crafting.

See E. D. Andrews and F. Andrews, Shaker Furniture (1937, repr. 1964) and The People Called Shakers (2d ed. 1963); J. G. Shea, American Shakers and Their Furniture (1970); H. C. Desroche, The American Shakers (tr. 1971); P. J. Brewer, Shaker Communities, Shaker Lives (1986); S. J. Stein, The Shaker Experience in America (1992); S. Skees, God among the Shakers (1998).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Shakers: Selected full-text books and articles

Shaker Furniture: The Craftsmanship of an American Communal Sect By Edward Deming Andrews; Faith Andrews; William F. Winter Dover Publications, 1964
Interpersonal Processes in Nineteenth Century Utopian Communities: Shakers and Oneida Perfectionists By Isaac, James; Altman, Irwin Utopian Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, Winter 1998
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Escape to Utopia: The Communal Movement in America By Everett Webber Hastings House, 1959
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Two "Shadrach, Mother Ann, and the Contented of the God-Loving Soul: The Woman in the Wilderness Had Two Wings" and Chap. Three "The Shaker Discipline: Right Foot First, Left Foot Then"
America's Communal Utopias By Donald E. Pitzer University of North Carolina Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "The Shakers of Mother Ann Lee" begins on p. 37
When Prophets Die: The Postcharismatic Fate of New Religious Movements By Timothy Miller State University of New York Press, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "The Shakers: The Adaptation on Prophecy"
FREE! Gleanings from Old Shaker Journals By Clara Endicott Sears Houghton Mifflin, 1916
Samuel Johnson after Deconstruction: Rhetoric and the Rambler By Steven Lynn Southern Illinois University Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XLV "The Shakers"
Gifts of Power: The Writings of Rebecca Jackson, Black Visionary, Shaker Eldress By Rebecca Jackson; Jean McMahon Humez University of Massachusetts Press, 1981
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