Talmud (tăl´məd) [Aramaic from Heb.,=learning], in Judaism, vast compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and commentaries, in contradistinction to the Scriptures or Written Laws. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews everywhere. Its two divisions are the Mishna or text of the Oral Law (in Hebrew) and the Gemara (in Aramaic), a commentary on the Mishna, which it supplements. The Mishna is divided into six Orders (Sedarim) and comprises 63 tractates (Massektoth), only 361/2 of which have a Gemara. The redaction of the Mishna was completed under the auspices of Juda ha-Nasi, c.AD 200, who collected and codified the legal material that had accumulated through the exposition of the Law by the Scribes (Soferim), particularly Hillel and Shammai, and its elaboration by the Tannaim of the 1st and 2d cent. AD, particularly Akiba ben Joseph. The Gemara developed out of the interpretations of the Mishna by the Amoraim. Both the Palestinian and Babylonian schools produced Talmuds, known respectively as the Talmud Yerushalmi (compiled c.5th cent. AD) and the Talmud Babli (c.6th cent. AD). The Babylonian Talmud is longer and more comprehensive and sophisticated than the Talmud Yerushalmi. It became the authoritative work due in part to the predominance of Babylonian Jewry and the decline of the Palestinian community by the year 1000. The Talmud touches on a wide range of subjects, offering information and comment on astronomy, geography, historical lore, domestic relations, and folklore. The legal sections of the Talmud are known as the halakah; the poetical digressions, illustrating the application of religious and ethical principles through parables, legends, allegories, tales, and anecdotes, constitute the Aggada. In the Middle Ages there arose a vast literature of commentaries on the Gemara—commentaries on those commentaries—and responsa (questions and answers); Rashi was one of the best-known commentators, and his commentaries are included in standard editions of the Talmud. In the Middle Ages thousands of Talmud manuscripts were destroyed by the Christians. The term Talmud is sometimes used to refer to the Gemara alone.

See The Babylonian Talmud (34 vol., tr. 1935–48); J. Goldin, The Living Talmud (1957, repr. 1964); H. L. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (1931, repr. 1969); C. G. Montefiore and H. Loewe, ed., A Rabbinic Anthology (1970); J. Neuser, Invitation to the Talmud (1973, repr. 1984); A. Steinsaltz, ed., The Talmud (Vol. I–XX, 1989–99) and The Essential Talmud (1992); D. H. Akenson, Surpassing Wonder: The Invention of the Bible and the Talmuds (1999).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Talmud: Selected full-text books and articles

What Is Talmud? The Art of Disagreement By Sergey Dolgopolski Fordham University Press, 2009
How the Talmud Works By Jacob Neusner Brill, 2002
Jews, Gentiles, and Other Animals: The Talmud after the Humanities By Mira Beth Wasserman University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017
Traveling Homeland: The Babylonian Talmud as Diaspora By Daniel Boyarin University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015
The Open Past: Subjectivity and Remembering in the Talmud By Sergey Dolgopolski Fordham University Press, 2013
The Talmud: Selected Writings By Ben Zion Bokser; Baruch M. Bokser Paulist Press, 1989
The Four Stages of Rabbinic Judaism By Jacob Neusner Routledge, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "The Talmuds" and Chap. 6 "The Talmuds in Pentateuchal Context"
Comparing Religions through Law: Judaism and Islam By Jacob Neusner; Tamara Sonn Routledge, 1999
Librarian's tip: "The Talmuds" begins on p. 32
Reading Levinas/Reading Talmud: An Introduction By Ira F. Stone Jewish Publication Society, 1998
The Duality of Man: A Study in Talmudic Allegorical Interpretations By Kahn, Pinchas Jewish Bible Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 2, April 2008
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator
Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.