Emmanuel Levinas


phenomenology, modern school of philosophy founded by Edmund Husserl. Its influence extended throughout Europe and was particularly important to the early development of existentialism. Husserl attempted to develop a universal philosophic method, devoid of presuppositions, by focusing purely on phenomena and describing them; anything that could not be seen, and thus was not immediately given to the consciousness, was excluded. The concern was with what is known, not how it is known. The phenomenological method is thus neither the deductive method of logic nor the empirical method of the natural sciences; instead it consists in realizing the presence of an object and elucidating its meaning through intuition. Husserl considered the object of the phenomenological method to be the immediate seizure, in an act of vision, of the ideal intelligible content of the phenomenon. Notable members of the school have been Roman Ingarden, Max Scheler, Emmanuel Levinas, and Marvin Farber.

See E. Husserl, Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (tr. 1931, repr. 1989) and Cartesian Meditations (tr. 1960, repr. 1970); M. Farber, The Foundation of Phenomenology (1943, repr. 1967); R. Zanes, Way of Phenomenology (1970); M. A. Natanson, ed., Phenomenology and the Social Sciences (2 vol., 1973); H. Spiegelberg, The Phenomenological Movement (1981); R. Grossman, Phenomenology and Existentialism (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Emmanuel Levinas: Selected full-text books and articles

The Cambridge Companion to Levinas By Simon Critchley; Robert Bernasconi Cambridge University Press, 2002
Reading Levinas/Reading Talmud: An Introduction By Ira F. Stone Jewish Publication Society, 1998
Levinas and the Crisis of Humanism By Claire Elise Katz Indiana University Press, 2013
Postmodern Apologetics? Arguments for God in Contemporary Philosophy By Christina M. Gschwandtner Fordham University Press, 2013
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Emmanuel Lévinas and the Infinite"
Contemporary Jewish Theology: A Reader By Elliot N. Dorff; Louis E. Newman Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 15 "Revelation in the Jewish Tradition" by Emmanuel Levinas
Levinas and the Political By Howard Caygill Routledge, 2002
Reconsidering Difference: Nancy, Derrida, Levinas, and Deleuze By Todd May Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997
On Being Human: A Conversation with Lonergan and Levinas By Michele Saracino Marquette University Press, 2003
Mystery and Method: The Other in Rahner and Levinas By Michael Purcell Marquette University Press, 1998
Correlations in Rosenzweig and Levinas By Robert Gibbs Princeton University Press, 1992
Levinas, Blanchot, Jabes: Figures of Estrangement By Gary D. Mole University Press of Florida, 1997
After Poststructuralism: Reading, Stories and Theory By Colin Davis Routledge, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "After Ethics: Levinas without Stories"
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