pogrom (pō´grəm, pōgrŏm´), Russian term, originally meaning "riot," that came to be applied to a series of violent attacks on Jews in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th cent. Pogroms were few before the assassination of Alexander II in 1881; after that, with the connivance of, or at least without hindrance from, the government, there were many pogroms throughout Russia. Soldiers and police often looked on without interfering. These pogroms encouraged the first emigration of Russian Jews to the United States. After 1882 there were few pogroms until 1903, when there was an extremely violent three-day pogrom at Chisinau resulting in the death of 45 Jews. Although it has not been conclusively proved that the czarist government organized pogroms, the government's anti-Semitic policies certainly encouraged them. After the abortive revolution of 1905, pogroms increased in number and violence. With the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, pogroms ceased in the Soviet Union; they were revived in Germany and Poland after Adolf Hitler attained power.

See E. H. Judge, Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom (1992).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Pogroms: Selected full-text books and articles

FREE! History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, from the Earliest Times until the Present Day By S. M. Dubnow; I. Friedlaender Jewish Publication Society of America, vol.2, 1918
Librarian's tip: Chap. XXI "The Accession of Alexander III, and the Inaugurations of Pogroms"
A People Apart: The Jews in Europe, 1789-1939 By David Vital Oxford University Press, 1999
Count Witte and the Tsarist Government in the 1905 Revolution By Howard D. Mehlinger; John M. Thompson Indiana University Press, 1972
Librarian's tip: "Pogroms" begins on p. 57
A History of the Jewish People By Max L. Margolis; Alexander Marx Jewish Publication Society of America, 1927
Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany By Marion A. Kaplan Oxford University Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "The November Pogrom and Its Aftermath"
The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933-1945 By Robert Gellately Clarendon Press, 1991
Librarian's tip: "'Reichskristallnacht,' 9-10 November 1938" begins on p. 112
A Century of Jewish Life By Ismar Elbogen; Moses Hadas Jewish Publication Society of America, 1946
Librarian's tip: Book Five, Chap. II "The End of the War: Pogroms and Treaties of Peace"
The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Anti-Semitism By Edward H. Flannery Macmillan Company, 1965
Librarian's tip: Discussion of pogroms begins on p. 189
The Holocaust in the Soviet Union: Studies and Sources on the Destruction of the Jews in the Nazi-Occupied Territories of the USSR, 1941-1945 By Lucjan Dobroszycki; Jeffrey S. Gurock M.E. Sharpe, 1993
Librarian's tip: "Local Anti-Jewish Pogroms in the Occupied Territories of Eastern Poland, June-July 1941" begins on p. 173
Trotsky and the Jews By Joseph Nedava Jewish Publication Society of America, 1972
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "The Pogrom Obsession"
Religious Violence between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives By Anna Sapir Abulafia Palgrave, 2002
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "Christians and Jews and the ¿Dialogue of Violence¿ in Late Imperial Russia"
Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and Its Aftermath By Joshua D. Zimmerman Rutgers University Press, 2003
Librarian's tip: Chap. 17 "The Cracow Pogrom of August 1945: A Narrative Reconstruction"
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