Cotton Mather

Cotton Mather (măŧħ´ər), 1663–1728, American Puritan clergyman and writer, b. Boston, grad. Harvard (B.A., 1678; M.A., 1681); son of Increase Mather and grandson of Richard Mather and of John Cotton. He was ordained (1685) and became a colleague of his father at North Church, Boston, serving as pastor in his father's absences and after his father's death (1723). It was principally by his indefatigable writing that he became one of the most celebrated of all New England Puritan ministers. He was a scholar of parts, working industriously to gather a library and volubly setting forth what he learned. Thus his Magnalia Christi Americana (1702) is a miscellany of materials on the ecclesiastical history of New England, vaguely intended to show how the history of Massachusetts demonstrated the working of God's will. His theological writings, now largely forgotten, had great influence in his time. He was a power in the state as well as in the church, was a leader in the revolt against the rule of Sir Edmund Andros and an adviser in Sir William Phips's government. Today he is generally pictured unsympathetically as the archetype of the narrow, intolerant, severe Puritan, and his part in the Salem witch trials in 1692 is often recalled. Although he did not approve of all the trials, he had helped to stir up the wave of hysterical fear by his Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions (1689). Later he further pursued his inquiries into satanic possession with Wonders of the Invisible World (1693, new ed. 1956), which was sharply answered by Robert Calef. Even Mather's benevolence—expressed in his actions and reflected in his writings, as in Essays to Do Good (1710)—had a core of smugness. Yet he helped to forward learning and education and to make New England a cultural center. He was disappointed in his hopes of being president of Harvard but was one of the moving spirits in the founding of Yale. He was deeply interested in science and was the first native-born American to be a fellow of the Royal Society. He persuaded Zabdiel Boylston to inoculate against smallpox and supported the unpopular inoculation even when his life was threatened.

See biographies by B. Wendell (1891, repr. 1963), R. P. Boas and L. Boas (1928, repr. 1964), and K. Silverman (1985); studies by R. Middlekauff (1971) and J. P. Wood (1971); bibliography by T. J. Holmes (3 vol., 1940).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Cotton Mather: Selected full-text books and articles

The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596-1728 By Robert Middlekauff University of California Press, 1999
FREE! Cotton Mather: The Puritan Priest By Barrett Wendell Dodd, Mead, 1891
FREE! The Wonders of the Invisible World: Being an Account of the Tryals of Several Witches Lately Executed in New England By Cotton Mather; Increase Mather John Russell Smith, 1862
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
FREE! Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706 By George Lincoln Burr Barnes & Noble, 1914
Librarian's tip: "Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions, by Cotton Mather, 1689" begins on p. 89
Puritanism and Its Discontents By Laura Lunger Knoppers University of Delaware Press, 2003
Librarian's tip: "Staging a Puritan Saint: Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana" begins on p. 210
Captive Selves, Captivating Others: The Politics and Poetics of Colonial American Captivity Narratives By Pauline Turner Strong Westview Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: "Texts Written in Blood: Cotton Mather and the Production of Meaning" begins on p. 128
Self-Help and Popular Religion in Early American Culture: An Interpretive Guide By Roy M. Anker Greenwood Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Benjamin Franklin, Cotton Mather, and Individualism"
Columbia Literary History of the United States By Martha Banta; Terence Martin; David Minter; Marjorie Perloff; Daniel B. Shea; Emory Elliott Columbia University Press, 1988
Librarian's tip: "From Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin" begins on p. 101
Puritanism in Early America By George M. Waller D. C. Heath, 1950
Librarian's tip: "The Devil and Cotton Mather" begins on p. 79
Religious Melancholy and Protestant Experience in America By Julius H. Rubin Oxford University Press, 1994
Librarian's tip: "Cotton Mather" begins on p. 51
English Plague and New World Promise(*) By Totaro, Rebecca Utopian Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, Winter 1999
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