Francisco Suarez

Suárez, Francisco

Francisco Suárez (fränthēs´kō swä´rāth), 1548–1617, Spanish Jesuit philosopher, b. Granada. He studied at Salamanca and was ordained in 1572. He taught successively at Ávila, Segovia, Valladolid, Rome, Alcalá, and Salamanca and in 1597 was appointed to the Univ. of Coimbra, Portugal (then under Spanish dominion). He may be called the last of the scholastic philosophers (see scholasticism). His system is mild and characteristic of the Jesuit theologians. His "congruism" is a middle course between the teachings of Luis Molina and the Dominican predestinarian teachings. Suárez taught that one may hold the same doctrine by science and faith. His teaching on the divine right of kings that earthly power is properly held by the body of men and that kingly power is derived from them so enraged James I of England that the king had Suárez's De defensione fidei burned by the hangman. This political doctrine, based on the Roman Catholic doctrine of the equality before God of all men, is a basis of subsequent Catholic teachings on democracy. Suárez was highly esteemed by Grotius and his followers. In his Tractatus de legibus he made an important distinction between natural law and international law, which he saw as based on custom.

See J. H. Fichter, Man of Spain (1940); H. Lacarte, The Nature of Canon Law according to Suarez (1964).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Francisco Suarez: Selected full-text books and articles

Suarez on Individuation: Metaphysical Disputation V: Individual Unity and Its Principle By Francisco Suarez; Jorge J. E. Gracia Marquette University Press, 1982
On the Formal Cause of Substance: Metaphysical Disputation XV By Francis S. J. Suarez; John Kronen; Jeremiah Reedy Marquette University Press, 2000
On Beings of Reason: De Entibus Rationis: Metaphysical Disputation LIV By Francisco Suárez; John P. Doyle Marquette University Press, 1995
History of Political Philosophy from Plato to Burke By Thomas I. Cook Prentice-Hall, 1936
Librarian’s tip: "Suarez: Christian Philosophy as the Basis for International Law" begins on p. 409
Medieval Philosophy By John Marenbon Routledge, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 19 "Suarez (and Later Scholasticism)"
On Formal and Universal Unity (De Unitate Formali et Universali) By Francis Suarez; J. F. Ross Marquette University Press, 1964
Singular and Universal in Suarez's Account of Cognition By South, James B The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 55, No. 4, June 2002
Suarez and the Latent Essentialism of Heidegger's Fundamental Ontology(*) By Blanchette, Oliva The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 53, No. 1, September 1999
The Problem of the Continuant: Aquinas and Suarez on Prime Matter and Substantial Generation By Kronen, John D.; Menssen, Sandra; Sullivan, Thomas D The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 53, No. 4, June 2000
Descartes and Suarez on Secondary Qualities: A Tale of Two Readings By Wells, Norman J The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 51, No. 3, March 1998
Normativity and Norms: Critical Perspectives on Kelsenian Themes By Stanley L. Paulson; Bonnie Litschewski Paulson; Stanley L. Paulson; Bonnie Litschewski Paulson; Michael Sherberg Clarendon Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 14 "Two Models of Legal Validity: Hans Kelsen and Francisco Suarez"
Biographical Dictionary of Christian Theologians By Patrick W. Carey; Joseph T. Lienhard Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "Suarez, Francis" begins on p. 483
The Dictionary of Philosophy By Dagobert D. Runes Philosophical Library, 1942 (4th edition)
Librarian’s tip: "Suarezianism" begins on p. 302
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