Asthma

asthma (ăz´mə, ăs´–), chronic inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. A cough producing sticky mucus is symptomatic. The symptoms often appear to be caused by the body's reaction to a trigger such as an allergen (commonly pollen, house dust, animal dander: see allergy), certain drugs, an irritant (such as cigarette smoke or workplace chemicals), exercise, or emotional stress. These triggers can cause the asthmatic's lungs to release chemicals that create inflammation of the bronchial lining, constriction, and bronchial spasms. If the effect on the bronchi becomes severe enough to impede exhalation, carbon dioxide can build up in the lungs and lead to unconsciousness and death. Following a steady 30-year decline, asthma deaths in the United States, especially among poor, inner-city blacks and among the elderly, began to rise from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. At the same time, the incidence of asthma also increased, both nationally and worldwide.

There is no cure for asthma. Although the disease may go through a period of quiescence, it appears that childhood asthmatics do not outgrow the disease as previously believed. Treatment includes inhaled or oral steroids or bronchodilators (albuterol, theophylline), breathing exercises, and, if possible, the identification and avoidance of triggers.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Asthma: Selected full-text books and articles

Understanding Asthma By Phil Lieberman University Press of Mississippi, 1999
National Asthma Burden Continues to Rise; Disparities, Barriers Persist By Currie, Donya The Nation's Health, Vol. 42, No. 6, August 2012
Asthma Counterattack: Symptoms Decline When Families Fight Allergens at Home By Harder, Ben Science News, Vol. 166, No. 22, November 27, 2004
Avoid Fast Food to Dodge Asthma? By Scarmo, Stephanie Nutrition Action Healthletter, Vol. 40, No. 5, June 2013
Induction of Asthma and the Environment: What We Know and Need to Know By Selgrade, Mary Jane K.; Lemanske, Robert F., Jr.; Gilmour, M. Ian; Neas, Lucas M.; Ward, Marsha D. W.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Weissman, David N.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Dietert, Rodney R.; Sly, Peter D.; Geller, Andrew M.; Enright, Paul L.; Backus, Gillian S.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Germolec, Dori R.; Yeatts, Karin B Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 114, No. 4, April 2006
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Practical Management of Asthma By Sucher, Brandon J.; Sucher, Allana J Drug Topics, Vol. 153, No. 11, November 2009
Understanding Children with Asthma: Trouble and Triggers By Lim, JungHa; Wood, Beatrice L.; Cheah, PoAnn Childhood Education, Vol. 85, No. 5, Annual 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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