Lead Poisoning

lead poisoning or plumbism (plŭm´bĬz´əm), intoxication of the system by organic compounds containing lead. These enter the body by respiration (of dust, fumes, or sprays) or by ingestion of food or other substances that contain lead. Lead poisoning, formerly a leading occupational hazard in industrialized countries, can be an acute episode but is usually a chronic, cumulative disease brought about by continuous exposure.

See also occupational disease.

Sources

Many of the traditional sources of lead in the United States have been minimized by a variety of federal laws, enacted from 1978 on, banning lead paint and glazes and leaded gasolines, and prohibiting the use of lead pipes in construction and the use of lead solder in food and soda cans. Workplace exposure has been regulated by laws requiring the use of respirators, dust suppressors, and proper ventilation, and lead waste disposal guidelines have been developed. Continuing sources of environmental lead include water that has passed through old lead pipes, paint in older buildings, lead improperly disposed of in public landfills, and industrial sources such as mining, smelting, and recycling processes necessary to produce lead for batteries and other products.

Young children are usually exposed by ingesting paint chips containing lead. This source is most prevalent in poor areas where old, peeling lead-containing paint and plaster in rundown housing is common. Inadequately nourished or emotionally deprived children who resort to chewing inedible things (a condition known as pica) are most susceptible.

Effects and Treatment

Acute lead poisoning can result in abdominal discomfort, nervous system damage, and encephalitis. Chronic exposure is characterized by a blue line on the gums and can lead to damage to the brain, kidneys, nervous system, and red blood cells. Even low levels can contribute to hypertension in older people or to "silent lead poisoning" in exposed children, which affects the developing brain and leads to visual-motor problems, lowered intelligence, shortened attention span, and antisocial behavior. Lower doses may be treated by altering the diet to counteract lead's effects and and cleaning the person's environment to reduce intake. Higher doses are treated with chelating agents, drugs that remove lead from the body, but chelation's effects do not appear to extend to the brain. Symptoms recur upon subsequent exposure, and some of the effects of a mother's exposure can be passed to her children and grandchildren.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Lead Poisoning: Selected full-text books and articles

Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America's Children By Gerald Markowitz; David Rosner University of California Press, 2013
Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution By Gerald Markowitz; David Rosner University of California Press, 2013
Librarian's tip: Chap. 1 "The House of the Butterflies: Lead Poisoning among Workers and Consumers;" Chap. 2 "A Child Lives in a Lead World;" Chap. 3 "Cater to the Children: The Promotion of White Lead"
Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution By Gerald Markowitz; David Rosner University of California Press, 2002
Librarian's tip: Chap. 1 "The House of Butterflies: Lead Poisoning among Workers and Consumers"
Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control By Gould, Elise Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 117, No. 7, July 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Lead Poisoning's Toll on Social Mobility Study Finds Effects beyond Health By Shefali Luthra Kaiser Health Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA), April 2, 2017
Lead in the Water: The Flint Water Crisis By Shelson, Jim Defense Counsel Journal, Vol. 83, No. 4, October 2016
The Conquest of Lead Poisoning: A Pyrrhic Victory By Lanphear, Bruce P Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, No. 10, October 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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