Organic Food

organic food, food raised without chemicals and processed without additives. Under standards adopted by the U.S. Agriculture Dept. (USDA) in 2000 and fully effective in 2002, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and antibiotics may not be used in raising organic foods, and the use of irradiation, biotechnology, and sewer-sludge fertilizer is also banned. Food whose ingredients are at least 95% organic by weight may carry the "USDA ORGANIC" label; products containing only organic ingredients are labeled 100% organic.

Proponents of organic food claim that it is more nutritious, safer to eat, and usually tastes better because it contains no synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, hormones, medicated feed, or antibiotics or chemicals used in food processing (see also organic farming); these claims are disputed by conventional-food growers and processors. Organic foods have become steadily more popular as the public has become more concerned about health risks associated with chemicals in food products. Organic produce is now available in many food outlets, including major supermarket chains. Organic food is generally more expensive because organic farming requires more manual labor and attention.

See D. Steinman, Diet for a Poisoned Planet (1990).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Organic Food: Selected full-text books and articles

Q Is Organic Food Healthier? By Liberatore, Stephanie The Science Teacher, Vol. 77, No. 7, October 2010
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Organic Milk: Is the Grass Greener on the Other Side? By Palliser, Janna Science Scope, Vol. 34, No. 8, April-May 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children's Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides By Lu, Chensheng; Toepel, Kathryn; Irish, Rene; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana B.; Bravo, Roberto Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 114, No. 2, February 2006
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Study Affirms Benefits of Organic Farming. (Environmental Intelligence) By Halweil, Brian World Watch, Vol. 15, No. 5, September-October 2002
Organic Food Conclusions Don't Tell the Whole Story By Holzman, David C Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 120, No. 12, December 2012
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Adding Assurance to the Term "Organic" By Barker, Katherine; Reinstein, Alan; Rodriguez, Melissa; Tarr, Stephanie Review of Business, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Characteristics of Organic Food Shoppers By Zepeda, Lydia; Li, Jinghan Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Vol. 39, No. 1, April 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Food Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know By Robert Paarlberg Oxford University Press, 2010
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "Organic and Local Food"
Cultivating an Ecological Conscience: Essays from a Farmer Philosopher By Frederick L. Kirschenmann; Constance L. Falk University Press of Kentucky, 2010
Librarian’s tip: "Can Organic Agriculture Feed the World? And Is That the Right Question?" begins on p. 141
Controversies in Food and Nutrition By Myrna Chandler Goldstein; Mark A. Goldstein Greenwood Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "Organic Foods"
Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming in California By Julie Guthman University of California Press, 2004
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