Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, 1820–1910, English nurse, the founder of modern nursing, b. Florence, Italy. Her life was dedicated to the care of the sick and war wounded and to the promotion of her vision of an effective public health-care system. In 1844 she began to visit hospitals; in 1850 she spent some time with the nursing Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul in Alexandria; and a year later she studied at the institute for Protestant deaconesses in Kaiserswerth, Germany. In 1854 she organized a unit of 38 woman nurses for service in the Crimean War; by the end of the war she had become a legend. With the testimonial fund collected for her war services she established (1860) the Nightingale School and Home for training nurses at St. Thomas's Hospital, London. She was called "The Lady with the Lamp" because she believed that a nurse's care was never ceasing, night or day; she taught that nursing was a noble profession, and she made it so. Florence Nightingale was the first woman to be given the British Order of Merit (1907). She wrote Notes … on Hospital Administration (1857), Notes on Hospitals (1859), Notes on Nursing (1860), and Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes (1861). After her death the Crimean Monument, Waterloo Place, London, was erected (1915) in her honor, and the Florence Nightingale International Foundation was inaugurated (1934).

See M. Vicinus and B. Nergaard, ed., Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters (1989); biographies by C. Woodham-Smith (1950, 1983), E. Huxley (1975), B. M. Dossey (2000, repr. 2009), H. Small (2000), G. Gill (2004), M. Bostridge (2008), and L. McDonald (2010); studies by F. B. Smith (1982), M. E. Baly (1986, repr. 1998), and S. Dengler (1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Florence Nightingale: Selected full-text books and articles

Florence Nightingale on Women, Medicine, Midwifery and Prostitution By Florence Nightingale; Lynn McDonald Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2004
Suggestions for Thought By Florence Nightingale; Michael D. Calabria; Janet A. Macrae University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994
Florence Nightingale: An Introduction to Her Life and Family By Florence Nightingale; Lynn McDonald Wilfrid Laurier University Press, vol.1, 2001
Florence Nightingale's Theology: Essays, Letters and Journal Notes By Florence Nightingale; Lynn McDonald Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2002
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
The Friendship of Florence Nightingale and Mary Clare Moore By Mary C. Sullivan University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999
An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing By Robert Dingwall; Anne Marie Rafferty; Charles Webster Routledge, 1988
Nursing and Social Change By Monica E. Baly Routledge, 1995 (3rd edition)
Florence Nightingale - Fantasy and Fact By Timko, Michael The World and I, Vol. 18, No. 7, July 2003
FREE! Eminent Women of the Age: Being Narratives of the Lives and Deeds of the Most Prominent Women of the Present Generation By James Parton; T. W. Higginson; J. S. C. Abbott; James M. Hoppin; William Winter; Grace Greenwood; E. C. Stanton; Horace Greeley; Fanny Fern; Theodore Tilton S.M. Betts, 1869
Death or Glory: The Legacy of the Crimean War By Robert B. Edgerton Westview Press, 1999
A Second Treasury of the World's Great Letters By Wallace Brockway; Bart Keith Winer Simon & Schuster, 1941
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
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