muscle, the contractile tissue that effects the movement of and within the body. Muscle tissue in the higher animals is classified as striated, smooth, or cardiac, according to its structure and function. Striated, or skeletal, muscle forms the bulk of the body's muscle tissue and gives the body its general shape. It is called striated because it appears striped, in alternating bands of light and dark, when viewed under a microscope, and animals have conscious control over most of their striate muscles. Smooth muscle, which lines most of the hollow organs of the body, is not under voluntary control, but is regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscle fibers are spindle-shaped, not striated, and generally are arranged in dense sheets. Smooth muscle lines the blood vessels, hair follicles, urinary tract, digestive tract, and genital tract. Its speed of contraction is slower than that of striated muscle, but it can remain contracted longer. Cardiac muscle is striated like skeletal muscle but, like smooth muscle, is controlled involuntarily. It is found only in the heart, where it forms that organ's thick walls. The contractions of cardiac muscle are stimulated by a special clump of muscle tissue located on the heart (the pacemaker), although the rate of contractions is subject to regulation by the autonomic nervous system.

Muscle Contraction

Skeletal muscles are attached (with some exceptions, such as the muscles of the tongue and pharynx) to the skeleton by means of tendons, usually in pairs that pull in opposite directions, e.g., the biceps (flexor) and triceps (extensor) that move the forearm at the elbow. The means by which all types of muscles contract is thought to be generally the same, although muscles are classified as phasic, or fast twitch, and tonic, or slow twitch, to differentiate between the various lengths of time a muscle may require to move in response to stimulation. Striated muscle is usually considered phasic, while cardiac and smooth muscle are thought to be tonic.

Perhaps because its action is most varied, striated muscle has been studied most extensively. This type of muscle is composed of numerous cylindrically shaped bundles of cells, each enclosed in a sheath called the sarcolemma. Each muscle fiber contains several hundred to several thousand tightly packed strands called myofibrils that consist of alternating filaments of the protein substances actin and myosin. Actin and myosin interact before muscle contraction, forming the contractile material actomyosin.

The energy required for muscle contraction comes from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a substance that is present in the cells and is formed during cellular respiration. A muscle fiber is stimulated to contract by electrical impulses from the nervous system. The point of contact between nerve and muscle is the neuromuscular junction, where the chemical substance acetylcholine is secreted, initiating the changes that cause the muscle to contract. During resting states, some of the fibers in the musculature are maintained in a state of partial contraction, known as muscle tone. This permits muscles to contract quickly when stimulated without having to overcome the inertia of total relaxation.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Muscles: Selected full-text books and articles

Nerves and Muscles
Robert Galambos.
Anchor Books, 1962
Comparative Physiology of the Nervous Control of Muscular Contraction
Unknown, 1957
Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response
John L. Andreassi.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000 (4th edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "Muscle Activity and Behavior"
Dexterity and Its Development
Mark L. Latash; Michael T. Turvey; Nicholai A. Bernstein; Mark L. Latash.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996
Human Motor Behavior: An Introduction
J. A. Scott Kelso.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1982
Nutrition across the Life Span
Mary Kay Mitchell.
W. B. Saunders, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "Muscle Fibers and Their Energy Systems" begins on p. 383
Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide
Mark S. Schwartz; Frank Andrasik.
Guilford Press, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Part VII "Neuromuscular Applications"
Introduction to Ergonomics
R. S. Bridger.
Taylor & Francis, 2003
Librarian’s tip: "Muscles, Structure and Function and Capacity" begins on p. 188
Issues in Abdominal Fitness: Testing and Technique
Knudson, Duane.
JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, Vol. 70, No. 3, March 1999
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Effect of Personality Type on Muscle Coactivation during Elbow Flexion
Glasscock, Naomi F.; Turville, Kristine L.; Joines, Sharon B.; Mirka, Gary A.
Human Factors, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 1999
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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