horticulture [Lat. hortus=garden], science and art of gardening and of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. Horticulture generally refers to small-scale gardening, and agriculture to the growing of field crops, usually on a large scale, although the distinction is not always precise (for example, market gardening could be classed either way). A horticultural variety of a plant is one produced under cultivation, as distinguished from the botanical species or varieties, which occur in nature. Although many horticultural practices are very ancient (see botany), comparatively recent knowledge of genetics, plant physiology, biochemistry, ecology, plant pathology, entomology, molecular biology, and soils, and the systematic application of such knowledge to practical use (e.g., in plant breeding), has expanded horticulture into an extremely complex science. Agencies such as the various bureaus of the Dept. of Agriculture, the state experimental stations, and the many agricultural colleges; organizations such as the American Horticultural Society and the various state horticultural societies and local granges and garden clubs; and the commercial flower-growing and experimental nurseries (see nursery)β€”all engage in developing, analyzing, systematizing, and disseminating improved horticultural practices for the benefit of both amateur and professional gardeners. See also garden.

See E. P. Christopher, Introductory Horticulture (1958); J. B. Edmond et al., Fundamentals of Horticulture (3d ed. 1964); T. H. Everett, The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture (10 vol., 1980–82).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Horticulture: Selected full-text books and articles

Arboriculture: History and Development in North America
Richard J. Campana.
Michigan State University Press, 1999
Fifty Years of Botany: Golden Jubilee Volume of the Botanical Society of America
William Campbell Steere.
McGraw-Hill, 1958
Vistas in Botany
W. B. Turrill.
Pergamon, 1959
Herbals, Their Origin and Evolution: A Chapter in the History of Botany, 1470-1670
Agnes Arber.
University Press, 1938
Economic Botany: A Textbook of Useful Plants and Plant Products
Albert F. Hill.
McGraw-Hill, 1952 (2nd edition)
FREE! The Trees, Shrubs, and Plants of Virgil
John Sargeaunt.
B.H. Blackwell, 1920
The Japanese Art of Miniature Trees and Landscapes: Their Creation, Care, and Enjoyment
Yuji Yoshimura; Giovanna M. Halford.
C.E. Tuttle, 1957
Describing Species: Practical Taxonomic Procedure for Biologists
Judith E. Winston.
Columbia University Press, 1999
Plants, Man and Life
Edgar Anderson.
Little, Brown & Company, 1952
How Plants Get Their Names
L. H. Bailey.
The Macmillan Company, 1933
The Families of Flowering Plants: Arranged According to a New System Based on their Probable Phylogeny
J. Hutchinson.
Macmillan Company, vol.1, 1926
A Short History of the Plant Sciences
Howard S. Reed.
Chronica Botanica, 1942
To Winterize Your Yard for Wildlife, Provide a Reliable Source of Water
Woodier, Olwen.
National Wildlife, Vol. 35, No. 2, February-March 1997
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