Assimilation in America


Americanization, term used to describe the movement during the first quarter of the 20th cent. whereby the immigrant in the United States was induced to assimilate American speech, ideals, traditions, and ways of life. As a result of the great emigration from E and S Europe between 1880 and the outbreak of World War I (see immigration), the Americanization movement grew to crusading proportions. Fear and suspicion of the newcomers and of their possible failure to become assimilated gave impetus to the movement. Joined by social workers interested in improving the slum conditions surrounding the immigrants, and by representatives of the business and industrial world, organizations were formed to propagandize and to agitate for municipal, state, and federal aid to indoctrinate the immigrants into American ways. The coming of World War I with the resultant heightening of U.S. nationalism strengthened the movement. The Federal Bureau of Education and the Federal Bureau of Naturalization joined in the crusade and aided the private Americanization groups. Large rallies, patriotic naturalization proceedings, and Fourth of July celebrations characterized the campaign. When the United States entered into the war, Americanization was made an official part of the war effort. Many states passed legislation providing for the education and Americanization of the foreign-born. The anti-Communist drive conducted by the Dept. of Justice in 1919–20 stimulated the movement and led to even greater legislative action on behalf of Americanization. Virtually every state that had a substantial foreign-born population had provided educational facilities for the immigrant by 1921. The passage of this legislation and the quota system of immigration caused the Americanization movement to subside; private groups eventually disbanded.

See J. Higham, Strangers in the Land (1963).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Assimilation in America: Selected full-text books and articles

Assimilation, American Style
Peter D. Salins.
Basic Books, 1997
Assimilation Blues: Black Families in a White Community
Beverly Daniel Tatum.
Greenwood Press, 1987
Out of the Barrio: Toward a New Politics of Hispanic Assimilation
Linda Chavez.
Basic Books, 1991
Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany
Peter H. Schuck.
Berghahn Books, 1998
Life Lines: Community, Family, and Assimilation among Asian Indian Immigrants
Jean Bacon.
Oxford University Press, 1996
A Framework for Immigration: Asians in the United States
Uma A. Segal.
Columbia University Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Asian Adjustment"
Ethnic Routes to Becoming American: Indian Immigrants and the Cultures of Citizenship
Sharmila Rudrappa.
Rutgers University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Four "The Indo American Center: Integrating the Best of Both Cultures" and Chap. Six "Becoming American: The Racialized Content of American Citizenship"
Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality in the United States: Toward the Twenty-First Century
Paul Wong.
Westview Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "The Assimilation Paradigm" begins on p. 294
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