Shawnee (indigenous people of North America)

Shawnee (shô´nē´) or Shawano (shô´wənō), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Their earliest known home was in the present state of Ohio. In the mid-17th cent. part of the tribe was settled in W South Carolina and part in N Tennessee. These two bodies, divided by the Cherokee, migrated constantly, from South Carolina to S New York, then to W Pennsylvania and into Ohio, where they finally united in the mid-18th cent. They then numbered some 1,500. After their reunion in Ohio the warlike Shawnee participated in almost every war of the Old Northwest (see Northwest Territory). By the Treaty of Greenville (1795) they were obliged to give up their lands in Ohio and move to Indiana. About 1800 the Shawnee Prophet (Tenskwatawa) arose. He and his followers, cooperating with Tecumseh, established themselves in a village at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River in Indiana. It was this village that William Henry Harrison destroyed in the battle of Tippecanoe. The Shawnee were thereafter moved to Missouri, to Kansas, and finally to Oklahoma. Today they live on reservations in Oklahoma and Missouri. In 1990 there were over 6,600 Shawnee in the United States.

See H. Harvey, History of the Shawnee Indians, 1681–1854 (1855, repr. 1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Shawnee: Selected full-text books and articles

The Worlds the Shawnees Made: Migration and Violence in Early America By Stephen Warren University of North Carolina Press, 2014
The Shawnee Prophet By R. David Edmunds University of Nebraska Press, 1983
Tecumseh: Vision of Glory By Glenn Tucker Bobbs-Merrill, 1956
The Transformation of the Southeastern Indians, 1540-1760 By Robbie Ethridge; Charles Hudson University Press of Mississippi, 2002
Librarian's tip: The Shawnee are discussed in "The Ohio Valley, 1550–1750: Patterns of Sociopolitical Coalescence and Dispersal," which begins on p. 115
Shawnee Convergence: Immigrant Indians in the Ozarks By Lankford, George E The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 4, Winter 1999
The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Northeast By Kathleen J. Bragdon Columbia University Press, 2001
Librarian's tip: "Shawnee (Sawanwa, 'People of the South')" begins on p. 152
Prophets of the Great Spirit: Native American Revitalization Movements in Eastern North America By Alfred A. Cave University of Nebraska Press, 2005
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "The Shawnee Prophet"
"Tecumseh" and Other Stories of the Ohio River Valley By Julia L. Dumont; Sandra Parker Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 2000
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Blue Jacket: Warrior of the Shawnees By John Sugden University of Nebraska Press, 2000
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