History of Writing


writing, the visible recording of language peculiar to the human species. Writing enables the transmission of ideas over vast distances of time and space and is a prerequisite of complex civilization. Where, and by whom writing was first developed remains unknown, but scholars place the beginning of writing at 6,000 BC The norm of writing is phonemic; i.e., it attempts to symbolize all significant sounds of the language and no others (see phonetics). When the goal is established as one letter for one phoneme (and vice versa), the result is a complete alphabet. Few alphabets attain this phonemic ideal, but some ancient ones (e.g., Sanskrit) and some modern new ones (e.g., Finnish) have been very successful. The contemporary important writing not of alphabetic type is that in Chinese characters, in which thousands of symbols are used, each representing a word or concept, and Japanese, where each character represents a syllable. The Chinese system is distant enough from the spoken language that the same characters are used in writing mutually unintelligible dialects, e.g., Cantonese and Mandarin. In some languages, as in English and French, the modern freezing of spelling has removed the writing more and more from pronunciation and has resulted in the need to teach spelling and the growth of fallacies like the "silent" letter (a letter is really either the symbol of a sound or it is unnecessary). Writing was developed independently in Egypt (see hieroglyphic), Mesopotamia (see cuneiform), China, and among the Zapotec, Olmec, and Maya in Central America. There are some areas where the question as to whether writing was adopted or independently developed is in doubt, as at Easter Island. Ancient writing, at first pictographic in nature, is best known from stone and clay inscriptions, but the use of perishable materials, mainly palm leaf, papyrus, and paper, began in ancient times. See accent; calligraphy; punctuation; paleography.

See J. H. Ober, Writing: Man's Greatest Invention (1964); O. Ogg, The 26 Letters (rev. ed. 1971); J. A. Fishman, Advances in the Creation and Revision of Writing Systems (1977); A. Gaur A History of Writing (1984); G. Sampson Writing Systems (1985); R. Harris, The Origin of Writing (1986).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

History of Writing: Selected full-text books and articles

Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization
Barry B. Powell.
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing
Jay David Bolter.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991
The Triumph of the Alphabet: A History of Writing
A. C. Moorhouse.
Henry Schuman, 1953
Alphabet to Email: How Written English Evolved and Where It's Heading
Naomi S. Baron.
Routledge, 2001
David Diringer.
Frederick A. Praeger, 1962
A Study of Writing: The Foundations of Grammatology
I. J. Gelb.
University of Chicago Press, 1952
Communications and History: Theories of Media, Knowledge, and Civilization
Paul Heyer.
Greenwood Press, 1988
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "The Establishment of Linguistics and the History of Writing"
The Cradle of Culture and What Children Know about Writing and Numbers before Being Taught
Liliana Tolchinsky.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003
The Young Composers: Composition's Beginnings in Nineteenth-Century Schools
Lucille M. Schultz.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1999
Learning to Spell: Research, Theory, and Practice across Languages
Charles A. Perfetti; Laurence Rieben; Michel Fayol.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "From Writing to Orthography: The Functions and Limits of the Notion of System"
The Psychology of Reading
Keith Rayner; Alexander Pollatsek.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989
Librarian’s tip: "A Brief History of Writing" begins on p. 36
Writing: The Nature, Development, and Teaching of Written Communication
Marcia Farr Whiteman.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, vol.1, 1981
Ancient Writing and Its Influence
B. L. Ullman.
Longmans, Green, 1932
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