Spanking (Physical Punishment)

corporal punishment

corporal punishment, physical chastisement of an offender. At one extreme it includes the death penalty (see capital punishment), but the term usually refers to punishments like flogging, caning, mutilation, and branding. Until c.1800, in many parts of the world, most crimes were punished thus, or by such practices as confinement in the pillory or stocks, which combined physical chastisement with the humiliation of an individual possible in a relatively small, cohesive society. Flogging was especially prevalent, being used also to keep order among the institutionalized insane and in schools and the armed forces.

In America, a movement against the use of corporal punishment was led in the late 17th cent. by Quakers who achieved local reforms in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The 18th cent. saw a general reaction against violent punishment, and with the emergence of the modern concept of rehabilitating an offender, confinement has been accompanied more by forms of moral, rather than physical, coercion. Nonetheless, the use of the whipping post survived in the United States into the 20th cent., and was last used in 1952 in Delaware.

The effectiveness of corporal punishment has been questioned by criminologists and educators, but it is still widely used. Flogging, for instance, was not banned in South Africa until 1995, and caning is employed in Singapore and Malaysia. Within British and American prisons flogging and beatings are still used, unofficially, to maintain order. Mutilation, including amputation of fingers and hands, is also used in some countries, especially in those whose legal system is based on Islamic law. Caning and spanking remain common in schools in some areas of the United States and Britain. Movements to restore or encourage corporal punishment of children recur periodically, as in rural and Southern parts of the United States.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Spanking (Physical Punishment): Selected full-text books and articles

Are Spanking Injunctions Scientifically Supported? By Larzelere, Robert E.; Baumrind, Diana Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 73, No. 2, Spring 2010
Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children By Neal Halfon; Kathryn Taaffe McLearn; Mark A. Schuster Cambridge University Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Child Discipline in the First Three Years of Life"
Something to Cry About: An Argument against Corporal Punishment of Children in Canada By Susan M. Turner Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "What about Spanking?"
Spankers and Nonspankers: Where They Get Information on Spanking By Walsh, Wendy Family Relations, Vol. 51, No. 1, January 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Stimulating Critical Thinking in the Undergrad Classroom: The Spanking Debate By Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 4, Fall 2010
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth By Christie-Mizell, C. André; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B Family Relations, Vol. 57, No. 3, July 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors By Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A Family Relations, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 2012
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
African American Family Life: Ecological and Cultural Diversity By Vonnie C. McLoyd; Nancy E. Hill; Kenneth A. Dodge Guilford Press, 2005
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "The Cultural Context of Physically Disciplining Children"
Issue of Corporal Punishment: Re-Examined By Andero, Abraham A.; Stewart, Allen Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 2, June 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Understanding Violence By Elizabeth Kandel Englander Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "Physical Punishment: Domestic Violence or Responsible Childrearing" begins on p. 127
Parental Belief Systems: The Psychological Consequences for Children By Irving E. Sigel; Ann V. McGillicuddy-DeLisi; Jacqueline J. Goodnow Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of spanking begins on p. 150
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