Human Rights

human rights, universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth. Conceptually derived from the theory of natural law and originating in Greco-Roman doctrines, the idea of human rights appears in some early Christian writers' works and is reflected in the Magna Carta (1215). The concept winds as a philosophical thread through 17th- and 18th-century European and American thought, including the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789). The United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, with Eleanor Roosevelt as chair, created the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which reasserted the concept of human rights after the horrors of World War II. Human rights have since become a universally espoused yet widely disregarded concept.

Organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch promote human rights and denounce human-rights abuses. In addition, such abuses around the world are monitored and documented by independent investigators ( "special rapporteurs" ) appointed by the UN Human Rights Council, which, in turn, rebukes cited nations for their human-rights failures. (The council replaced the UN Human Rights Commission, which had been accused of protecting human-rights violators, in mid-2006; similar accusations have been leveled at the new council.)

In Europe, the supranational European Court of Human Rights, established under the Council of Europe, is intended to protect individual human rights from government abuse. In the Americas, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, part of the Organization of American States, enforces the American Convention on Human Rights, but individuals cannot appeal directly to the court. The African Union has both the African Commission and the African Court on Human and People's Rights. The former may decide complaints against all parties to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights; the latter has a more restricted jurisdiction.

The charging in 1998 by a Spanish court of former Chilean president Augusto Pinochet with human-rights violations and the 1999 British ruling that he could be extradited to Spain, as well as the indictment and arrest (2000) in Senegal of former Chadian president Hissène Habré for human-rights violations during his presidency (although charges were later dropped, he was subsequently rearrested on a Belgian warrant), were regarded as small steps forward in the international protection of human rights.

See also civil rights; feminism; gay-rights movement; war crimes.

See M. A. Glendon, A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2001); A. Fagan, The Atlas of Human Rights (2010); S. Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (2010); A. Neier, The International Human Rights Movement (2012).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Human Rights: Selected full-text books and articles

Indivisible Human Rights: A History By Daniel J. Whelan University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010
International Human Rights By Jack Donnelly Westview Press, 2013 (4th edition)
Human Rights in World History By Peter N. Stearns Routledge, 2012
The International Human Rights Movement: A History By Aryeh Neier Princeton University Press, 2012
The UN Human Rights Council By Bertrand G. Ramcharan Routledge, 2011
The Moral Dimensions of Human Rights By Carl Wellman Oxford University Press, 2011
Human Rights: The Essential Reference By Carol Devine; Carol Rae Hansen; Ralph Wilde; Hilary Poole Oryx Press, 1999
Human Rights, Legitimacy, and the Use of Force By Allen Buchanan Oxford University Press, 2010
The Globalization of Human Rights By Jean-Marc Coicaud; Michael W. Doyle; Anne-Marie Gardner United Nations University Press, 2003
A People's History of the European Court of Human Rights By Michael D. Goldhaber Rutgers University Press, 2007
International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law By René Provost Cambridge University Press, 2002
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