Genocide in Armenia


genocide, in international law, the intentional and systematic destruction, wholly or in part, by a government of a national, racial, religious, or ethnic group. Although the term genocide was first coined in 1944, the crime itself has been committed often in history. It was initially used to describe the systematic campaign for the extermination of peoples carried on by Nazi Germany, in its attempts in the 1930s and 40s to destroy the entire European Jewish community, and to eliminate other national groups in Eastern Europe. In 1945, the charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal listed persecution on racial or religious grounds as a crime for which the victorious Allies would try Nazi offenders. It established the principle of the individual accountability of government officials who carried out the extermination policies. The United Nations, by a convention concluded in 1949, defined in detail the crime of genocide and provided for its punishment by competent national courts of the state on whose territory the crime was committed, or by international tribunal. Charging that the convention violated national sovereignty, especially in its provision for an international tribunal and in the potential liability of an individual citizen, the United States did not ratify it until 37 years later, in 1986. An international tribunal was established to prosecute genocide cases in the aftermath of the slaughter of more than 500,000 Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994. In 1995 top civilian and military Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat leaders were charged by an international tribunal with genocide in the killing of thousands of Muslims during the breakup of the former Yugoslavia.

See studies by I. L. Horowitz (1981), L. Kuper (1982), E. Staub (1989), S. Power (2001), and D. J. Goldhagen (2009).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2016, The Columbia University Press.

Genocide in Armenia: Selected full-text books and articles

A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire By Ronald Grigor SUNY; Fatma Müge Göçek; Norman M. Naimark Oxford University Press, 2011
A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts By Samuel Totten; William S. Parsons; Israel W. Charny Routledge, 2004 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "The Armenian Genocide"
Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions By George J. Andreopoulos University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994
Librarian’s tip: "Etiology and Sequelae of the Armenian Genocide" begins on p. 111
The Near East: A Modern History By William Yale University of Michigan Press, 1958
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VIII "Abdul Hamid and the Armenians"
History of Modern Europe, 1878-1919 By G. P. Gooch Henry Holt, 1923
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VII "Armenia and Crete"
The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude Seventh-Twentieth Century By Bat Yeor; Miriam Kochan; David Littman Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of genocide in Armenia begins on p. 195
Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People: A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism By Michael M. Gunter Greenwood Press, 1986
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of genocide in Armenia in multiple chapters
Black Dog of Fate: A Memoir By Peter Balakian Basic Books, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "The Cemetery of Our Ancestors" begins on p. 224
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Affirming Denial through Preemptive Apologia: The Case of the Armenian Genocide Resolution By Mueller, Alfred G., II Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 68, No. 1, Winter 2004
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide By Cohan, Sara Social Education, Vol. 69, No. 6, October 2005
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