Christmas Traditions and Folklore


Christmas [Christ's Mass], in the Christian calendar, feast of the nativity of Jesus, celebrated in Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches on Dec. 25. In liturgical importance it ranks after Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany (Jan. 6).

The observance probably does not date earlier than AD 200 and did not become widespread until the 4th cent. The date was undoubtedly chosen for its nearness to Epiphany, which, in the East, originally included a commemoration of the nativity. The date of Christmas coincides closely with the winter solstice in the Northern hemisphere, a time of rejoicing among many ancient cultures. Christmas, as the great popular festival of Western Europe, dates from the Middle Ages. In England after the Reformation the observance became a point of contention between Anglicans and other Protestants, and the celebration of Christmas was suppressed in Scotland and in much of New England until the 19th cent.

In the mid 19th cent. Christmas began to acquire its associations with an increasingly secularized holiday of gift-giving and good cheer, a view that was popularized in works such as Clement Clarke Moore's poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" (1823) and Charles Dickens's story A Christmas Carol (1843). Christmas cards first appeared c.1846. The current concept of a jolly Santa Claus was first made popular in New York in the 19th cent. (see Nicholas, Saint).

The Yule Log [Yule, from O.E.,=Christmas], the boar's head, the goose (in America the turkey), decoration with holly, hawthorn, wreaths, mistletoe, and the singing of carols by waifs (Christmas serenaders) are all typically English (see carol). Gifts at Christmas are also English; elsewhere they are given at other times, e.g., at Epiphany in Spain. The Christmas tree was a tradition from the Middle Ages in Germany. The crib (crèche) with the scene at Bethlehem was popularized by the Franciscans. The midnight service on Christmas Eve is a popular religious observance in the Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches.

See also Advent and Twelfth Night.

See M. Hadfield and J. Hadfield, The Twelve Days of Christmas (1961); P. L. Restad, Christmas in America (1995).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Christmas Traditions and Folklore: Selected full-text books and articles

Christmas: A Candid History By Bruce David Forbes University of California Press, 2007
The Illustrated Book of Christmas Folklore By Tristram Potter Coffin Seabury Press, 1973
Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain By Ronald Hutton Oxford University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "The Origins of Christmas"
Christmas in Germany: A Cultural History By Joe Perry University of North Carolina Press, 2010
Festivals of Western Europe By Dorothy Gladys Spicer H. W. Wilson, 1958
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of Christmas celebrations in several European countries
Christmas in 19th-Century America By Restad, Penne History Today, Vol. 45, No. 12, December 1995
Dickens and the Construction of Christmas By Rowell, Geoffrey History Today, Vol. 43, December 1993
Scrooge and Albert: Christmas in the 1840s By Lalumia, Christine History Today, Vol. 51, No. 12, December 2001
Pennsylvania Dutch: Folk Spirituality By Richard E. Wentz Paulist Press, 1993
Librarian’s tip: Part III "Folk Christmas"
FREE! A Christmas Carol By Charles Dickens; Milo Winter Rand McNally, 1912
Christmas By Karl Barth; Bernhard Citron Oliver and Boyd, 1959
A Wreath of Christmas Poems By Albert M. Hayes; José Erasto; James Laughlin New Directions, 1972
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator
Author Advanced search


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.