Magazine article Economic Review

Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management

Magazine article Economic Review

Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management

Article excerpt

Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management

Electric energy consumption is growing at pace exceeding 11 per cent in Pakistan. Time and money do not permit the construction of new generating plants to alleviate the crisis of loadshedding in the near term. Studies have been made which estimate that 10 per cent of industrial Kwh sales could be saved through conservation measures. There is sufficient potential to make a difference. WAPDA has recognized these conditions and has been developing programmes to minimize the negative effect of loadshedding. As these programmes become implemented, it will be up to WAPDA's customers to take heed and to take advantage of the opportunities that will be availed to them.

The Power Distribution Project is a USAID sponsored programme which involves the development of programmes and the supply of commodities, much of which is directed toward the conservation of electrical energy. This paper will describe the critical need to supply adequate supplies of electrical energy in Pakistan and discuss the WAPDA/PDP programmes that have been and are being developed to meet the challenge. WAPDA is proceeding to make energy efficiency improvements to its own system and influence its customers to reduce the waste of electrical energy with the assistance of the PDP.

The Energy Conservation and Load Management Challenge

Reducing loadshedding is recognized as the single most important challenge facing WAPDA today. The load curve of a typical summer day shows the inability of WAPDA to meet its customer's peak requirements (viewgraph No. 1). New customers are being added, as mandated by the Government of Pakistan, without the support of additional generation, exacerbating the situation. Also, existing customers are finding new ways to use electricity as their standard of living increases and new electrical appliances are purchased. The capital expenditure by customers is low in comparison to the costs to supply the energy. For example, electric heaters are being purchased for Rs. 100 which require an expenditure by WAPDA of Rs. 18,000 just to supply the generation!.

Loadshedding is for the most part an inconvenience to Domestic customers. However, for the Industrial, Commercial and Agricultural customers the costs can be staggering. Studies on the economic effect of loadshedding on industry in Pakistan have established that the costs were as high as Rs. 10 to 100 for each kWH of loadshedding. Obviously something has to be done and that something can be energy conservation and load management.

WAPDA Programmes to meet the challenge

WAPDA Side of the Meter: WAPDA's Energy Loss Reduction (ELR) programme, working in conjunction with the PDP, has contributed significantly to reducing energy losses on the distribution system. The programme provides for reconductoring of 11 kV distribution lines and the installation of capacitors to reduce line losses, thereby conserving energy.

A Vax computer has been installed in WAPDA's headquarters office and equipped with the Computer Assisted Distribution Planning and Design (CADPAD) programme. This equipment, supplied under the PDP, enables WAPDA engineers to maximize the use of available material and minimize line losses to conserve energy. Micro-Computers with similar software are now being installed in all operating divisions for engineers at that level to develop the most energy efficient HT/LT line construction and rehabilitation plans.

Customer Side of the Meter: Three strategies can be used to meet the challenge of reducing loadshedding on the WAPDA system. These are are as follows:

Peak Clipping: Reduction of load during peak periods can be achieved through direct control of customers load or through loadshedding. Utility activated customer demand control is sophisticated, complex and expensive and therefore not viable for Pakistan at the present time. Consequently, WAPDA must resort to loadshedding. …

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