In the 1980s, a Republican president led a defense build-up in response to foreign crises, and his education secretary, chided the establishment on school reform. Legal experts debated the merits of affirmative action, while advocates questioned the growing reliance of students on loans instead of grants to finance a college education. Sound familiar? While the names have changed--and some of the laws--many of the age-old debates have remained the same in the years since the first editions of Black Issues In Higher Education. In fact, some argue that the federal government did more for low-income students of color two decades ago than it does now.
"We have driven down the ladder of opportunity," says Thomas Mortenson, senior scholar at the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. A staunch advocate of need-based financial aid, Mortenson says such aid represented 86 percent of the student aid budget in the mid-1980s. The rate is now 52 percent, due largely to the declining value of Pell Grants and programs such as the HOPE Scholarship that emphasize merit rather than low-income status.
"Now we locus on holding the line," he said, rather than expanding programs.
To be sure, much about federal higher education policy has changed in the past two decades. Aid to historically Black colleges and minority-serving institutions has increased greatly, and these institutions have greater visibility in the eyes of policy-makers. After years of stagnation, federal Pell Grants also received important increases in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
But on many issues--affirmative action among them--the arguments continue. "I'm surprised that we are still debating affirmative action," says Shirley Wilcher, a former House of Representatives aide and Clinton administration official who now advises clients on diversity is sues.
In the ebb-and-flow of policy debates, however, here are a few of the more significant trends affecting college access and students of color from 1984 to 2004:
* HBCUs and minority-serving institutions: The last two decades have seen some impressive growth in support for these institutions. Federal support for HBCUs has tripled since 1988, to more than $270 million. In 1992, Congress added a new program for Hispanic-serving institutions (HSis). Significantly, political leaders in both parties talk about the importance of HBCUs, HSIs and tribal colleges, as evidenced by presidential advisory committees and partnership agreements that promote links between government and minority-serving institutions.
HBCUs and HSIs also work more closely together today after a period of conflict in the mid-1990s. Credit goes to initiatives such as the Alliance fur Equity in Higher Education, a foundation-funded effort to promote collaboration among Black, Hispanic-serving and tribal colleges. While each group has unique issues, they share similar challenges to increase access and achievement for students of color. …