In many parts of the Americas today, there are still people of African Negritic racial background who continue to exist either blended into the larger African-American population or are part of separate, indigenous groups living on their own lands with their own unique culture and languages.
One such example is the Washitaw Nation (official name: Empire Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah) who owned about one million acres of the former Louisiana Territory, but who now own only about 70,000 acres of their former territory. (The Louisiana Territory was almost half the size of present-day USA). The regaining of their lands from the US was a long legal process which concluded partially in 1991.
The Black Californians broke up as a nation during the late 1800s after many years of war with the Spanish invaders of the Southwest, with Mexico and with the US. They blended into the black population of California and their descendants still exist among the millions of black Californians of today. The Black Caribs or Garifunas of the Caribbean Islands and Central America also fought with the English and Spanish from the late 1500s up to 1797, when the British sued for peace. The Garifuna were expelled from their islands but they prospered in Central America where hundreds of thousands live today along the coasts.
And then there are also the Afro-Darienite, a significant group of pre-historic, pre-Columbian blacks who existed in South and Central America (Panama in particular). These blacks were the Africans that the Spanish first saw during their exploration of the narrow strip of land between Columbia and Central America and who were described as "slaves of our lord" since the Spaniards and Europeans had the intention of enslaving all blacks they found in the newly discovered lands.
These black people of pre-Columbian origins are not blacks who mixed with the Mongoloid Indian population as occurred during the time of slavery. They were blacks who were in some cases on their own lands before the southward migrations of the Mongoloid Native Americans. In many cases, these blacks had established civilisations in the Americas thousands of years ago.
In 1964, during the International Congress of American Anthropologists held in Barcelona, Spain, a French anthropologist pointed out that all that was missing to prove a definite presence of Negritic Blacks in the Americas before Columbus was Negroid skeletons to add to the already found Negroid featured terracottas. Later, in February 1975, skeletons of Negroid people dating to the 1200s were found at a pre-Columbian grave in the Virgin Islands.
Andrei Wierzinski, the Polish craniologist, also concluded (based on the study of skeletons found in Mexico), that a good portion of the skulls were that of Negritic Blacks. Based on the many finds for a Black African Negroid presence in Ancient Mexico, some of the most enthusiastic proponents of a pre-Columbian Black African presence in Mexico are Mexican professionals. They say that Africans must have established early important trading centres on the coasts along Vera Cuz, from which Middle America's first civilisation grew.
In retrospect, ancient Africans did visit the Americas from as early as about 100,000 BC where they stayed for tens of thousands of years. By 30,000 BC to about 15,000 BC, a massive migration from the Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific in the East occurred.
Blacks also migrated westward across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas during that period until the very eve of Columbus' first journey to the Americas. Trade, commerce and exploration as well as the search for new lands when the Sahara began to dry up later in history, was the catalyst that drove the West Africans towards the Atlantic and into the Americas. The experience of the Washitaw Nation (or Ouchita Nation) of the southern United States is another piece of solid evidence for the fact of pre-Columbian African presence and settlement in the Americas and specifically in the United States. …