Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

Hormonally Challenged

Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

Hormonally Challenged

Article excerpt

Whatever your parents told you, it's not about the birds and the bees. Ultimately, reproduction seems to be about a protein molecule called kisspeptin. The name has nothing to do with foreplay, however. Kisspeptin was discovered in Hershey, Pennsylvania, and its name comes from the town's other great research success: Hershey's Kisses chocolates.

At some point, most people's brain starts to secrete kisspeptin; when it does, the hypothalamus begins to produce a chemical called gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or GnRH. Written down, it looks like a teenage grunt and that's what it leads to. GnRH release is a crucial moment at the beginning of puberty. It brings about the secretion of hormones that start egg or sperm production and create the characteristic signs of sexual maturity.

On 12 September, the King's College London professor Kevin O'Byrne discussed the "enigma" of GnRH at a conference at the University of Bristol. The central enigma is the unanswered question of what kicks off puberty--we still don't know what activates kisspeptin to release GnRH.

It seems to have something to do with the brain's monitoring of stress and nutrition. Without good fat reserves and a relaxed demeanour, the chemical sages won't let you enter the trials of reproduction. That's why girls suffering from anorexia can experience disrupted menstruation.

Kisspeptin's role in puberty was discovered by accident when researchers were looking at its anti-cancer properties. Controlling the teenage brain is not the only thing it can do. GnRH is now used as a part of some cancer treatment routines because it stops the production of oestrogen, a hormone that seems to play a role in stimulating tumour growth.

Here's another clue: some of the ugliest rodents on the planet, known as "naked mole rats", are awash with kisspeptin--and they don't get cancer. …

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