Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

The Placenta at Centre Stage

Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

The Placenta at Centre Stage

Article excerpt

The unwritten rules of journalism will ensure that, for the next month, few stories will be able to string together more than 500 words without mentioning the World Cup. Luckily, Spain's Diego Costa has used horse placenta to treat an injury; this, he claims, allowed him to recover in time for the Champions League final and be fully fit for Rio. It's also why we can now discuss the idea for the Human Placenta Project.

At the end of last month, placenta experts (research scientists, not people who drip horse placenta extract on to desperate athletes) gathered in Maryland in the US. Their aim was to establish a project to learn how this most understudied of organs works and what to do when it doesn't.

Questionable medical applications aside, the placenta is a marvel. You wouldn't be here without it. Although scientists have been trying for decades to create artificial versions, they have failed miserably. Nothing we can engineer has come close to replicating the placenta's ability to act as the kidney, lungs, hormone source, nutrition channel and waste disposal unit for a growing foetus.

That said, not all placentas are created equal. And yet we have no scientific definition of the ideal placenta, which makes it very hard to diagnose a faulty one. Placentas that have nurtured babies who have been born weak or sick often look entirely normal. Abnormal-looking placentas are frequently associated with healthy babies. The devil, it seems, is in the detail.

The placenta grows from a layer of cells that surrounds the early foetus. These cells attach themselves to the wall of the uterus and then develop a network of tiny blood vessels that tap into the uterine blood supply, while also maintaining a barrier between the two organisms to stop the foetus from triggering the mother's immune system. …

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