Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

Animating Principle: The Last Bow of Hayao Miyazaki, Japan's Walt Disney

Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

Animating Principle: The Last Bow of Hayao Miyazaki, Japan's Walt Disney

Article excerpt

Aged 73, the Japanese animation director Hayao Miyazaki has finally grown up. After a career of child-centred fantasies such as My Neighbour Totoro (1988) and the Oscar-winning Spirited Away (2001) comes a historical wartime biopic, The Wind Rises, released in Japan last summer and in the UK on 9 May. The film is based on the life of Jiro Horikoshi (1903-82), the designer of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, Japan's formidable Second World War dogfighter. With scenes in which aircraft engineers discuss new rivet designs, nightmare visions involving bombs with gnashing teeth and a tuberculosis-scarred romance inspired by Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain, The Wind Rises is emphatically not "for kids" --so much so that Miyazaki told staff at his Studio Ghibli that in making the film they were "digging their own grave". Two months after its release, he announced that he was retiring.

There is a moral conundrum at the heart of The Wind Rises. Miyazaki portrays Jiro as an innocent genius whose only desire is to create extraordinary flying machines; but his Zeros were also extraordinary killing machines. Perhaps aware that the film was in danger of being seen as a celebration of Japanese military strength, Miyazaki published an essay explaining how as a child (he was born in 1941) he had "heard adults speak boastfully of the horrible things they had done on the Chinese continent"--where the Japanese policy during the war was " Kill all, loot all, destroy all"--and he "truly started to hate Japan". He criticised the present conservative government for plotting to overturn the constitution's "peace clause", which prohibits the state from maintaining armed forces capable of war.

Miyazaki, usually revered as a national treasure, was attacked by Japan's dominant right wing, which branded him a "traitor". Abroad, South Koreans and Americans were equally enraged: by the film's failure to acknowledge the Korean slave labour that built the Zeros and by its uncritical attitude to the man who enabled the devastating attack on Pearl Harbor. Despite the controversy, Ghibli had not dug its own grave: The Wind Rises was Japan's highest-grossing film in 2013. But its director had made many enemies.

Miyazaki's final film sprung not from a political urge but from a personal obsession with the Zero fighter, which his father's company, Miyazaki Airplane, made parts for during the war. "For all [Japan's] humiliating history," he has said, "the Zero represented one of the few things that we Japanese could be proud of." He once tried to purchase a surviving model and have it flown past his studio. Miyazaki is in thrall to Jiro's creation and as a result the moral knot at the film's heart is never fully unpicked: Jiro is absolved too easily. What the off-screen arguments do not recognise, though, is that the reasons for this are, at least partly, visual. In a lavish, hand-drawn animation such as this, why waste frames with furrowed-brow soul-searching when you can trace vapour-trails in the sky?

And what skies! The stereotype of Japanese animation (anime) involves wide-eyed, spiky-haired heroes and wide-eyed, busty heroines. But in Miyazaki's films, the sky and sea are often two of the main characters, the former dotted with Constable-like clouds, the latter's placid aquamarines capable of roiling into tsunamis--as in Ponyo (2008)--to rival Hokusai's The Great Wave. In Porco Rosso (1992), set in the interwar period, a former fighter ace (whose survival of the war has mysteriously transformed him into a pig) roams the Adriatic in his seaplane, hunting pirates. Everywhere there is sea and sky. Miyazaki fills his expansive canvas with glorious blue tones that seem to promise peace even as Italy's fascist forces loom.

These days most animation is done by computer--except at Studio Ghibli, where each film is composed of thousands of frames (170,000 for Ponyo), the majority of them hand-drawn by Miyazaki and his animators. …

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