Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

The Vanishing Particle Physicist

Magazine article New Statesman (1996)

The Vanishing Particle Physicist

Article excerpt

You probably haven't heard of Majorana fermions. You probably haven't heard of fermions, for that matter--nor of Ettore Majorana. Prepare yourself: it's a story of mystery and frustration.

Let's deal with the man first. Majorana was an Italian physicist, the best of his generation, who disappeared in mysterious circumstances in 1938. He emptied his bank account, bought a ticket for a boat ride from Palermo to Naples and left a note for his colleagues apologising for the inconvenience he was about to cause. He may have committed suicide but his body was never found. There are rumours of subsequent sightings in Buenos Aires. Some think that he abandoned physics and disappeared to live out his days in a secluded monastery.

Majorana's specialism was quantum theory and it is tempting to think that he engineered his disappearance to reflect the subject's strange ambiguities. A quantum particle such as an electron can be in two places at once, or simultaneously moving in two different directions; Majorana seemed to want his friends to wonder whether he could, too.

And so to his fermions. Just before his vanishing trick, Majorana predicted the existence of a particle with highly unusual properties. Although we have never seen one directly, there is every reason to think that it does exist and scientists on the 77-year-long hunt are tantalisingly close to pinning it down. This month, a group of Princeton University researchers added to the accumulating pile of evidence that the Majorana fermion is a real and fundamental building block of nature.

A fermion is one of the two types of particle that make up all matter. You have probably heard of the other one, the boson, because of all the Higgs fuss. Fermions are just as interesting. The building blocks of the atom--protons, neutrons and electrons--are all fermions. …

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