Magazine article Techniques

Career Tech in Content, 1900-1999

Magazine article Techniques

Career Tech in Content, 1900-1999

Article excerpt

The career and technical educational field evolved throughout the century just as the world around it did, experiencing some highs and some lows. Here's a look at 100 years of career tech in the context of history.

1902

Willis H. Carrier designs a practical system for indoor air conditioning

1903

The Wright Brothers make their first flight in Kitty Hawk, N.C.

1905

Advocates of "practical education" argue for boarder public school curriculum that prepares graduates for jobs.

1906

The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education is founded.

Maria Montessori opens her first day care center in Rome. Her Montessori method of early childhood education, part of the progressive education movement, spreads throughout the world.

1908

Henry Ford develops the first Model T automobile, which sells for $850.

1912

Congress sets an eight-hour work day. Most Americans continue to work 10- to 12-hour days.

1914

Sen. Hoke Smith chairs the commission on national aid for vocational education. World War I breaks out in Europe.

1917

The Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act becomes law. It provides $1.7 million for career and technical education in 1917-18 and creates a federal board.

1918

The United States enters World War I, sending 1 million troops abroad. The war ends in November; Congress passes legislation funding vocational education for veterans.

1920

The 19th Amendment grants suffrage to American women.

1925

John T. Scopes is found guilty of having taught evolution at a Dayton, Tenn., high school. He is fined $100.

1926

The American Vocational Association is founded.

Vocational education enrollment exceeds 850,000; states get $7.2 million for programs.

1929

Congress increases annual appropriations for home economics and agriculture education.

On Wall Street, the stock market crashes on Oct. 29, ushering in the Great Depression.

1933

Franklin D. Roosevelt, elected to the first of four presidential terms, appoints Frances Perkins U.S. secretary of labor. She is the first female cabinet member.

1934

The Dust Bowl hits U.S. western states, blowing 300 million tons of topsoil into the Atlantic Ocean and devastating farm land in Kansas, Texas, Colorado and Oklahoma.

1935

The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), later the Congress of industrial Organizations, is formed to expand industrial unionism.

1936

George-Deen Act authorizes an annual $12 million allotment for agriculture, home economics and trade and industrial education. Marketing occupations were recognized for the first time, receiving an authorization of $1.2 million.

1938

Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, providing a minimum wage for the first time.

1941

The U.S. enters World War II after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The war spurs Congress to pass Vocational Education for National Defense Acts to help prepare war industry workers, many of whom are women.

1944

President Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill of Rights, providing veterans' benefits,

1946

The George-Barden Act replaces the George-Deen Act and authorizes $28.5 million annually for the increased development of vocational education.

1954

In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kan., the Supreme Court rules unanimously that racial segregation violates the 14th Amendment.

1955

Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Ala., prompting a bus boycott and marking the unofficial beginning of the American civil rights movement.

Merger of America's two largest labor unions effected Dec. 5 under the name American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization. Merged AFL-CIO claims 15 million members.

1956

The Health Amendments Act added practical nursing and health occupations programs to the list of vocational programs eligible to receive federal funds.

1957

National Guardsmen, called out by Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus, barred nine black students from entering previously all-white Central High School in Little Rock.

1961

President Kennedy forms the Peace Corps of Young Americans to educate and train people in developing countries.

The Area Redevelopment Act, an emergency measure born out of a recession, authorizes $4.5 million annually to be used for vocational education until 1965.

1963

Vocational Education Act establishes set-asides for disabled and disadvantaged students.

1964

The Civil Rights Act established basic human rights and responsibilities in the workplace and prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin or handicap. Other issues addressed equal employment opportunities, voting rights, equal education, fair housing and public accommodation.

1966

Medicare established, broadening health care services for older Americans.

1967

U.S. vocational education programs celebrate the first "Vocational Education Week."

1968

The Vocational Amendments broaden the definition of vocational education to bring it closer to general education and provide vast sums of money to address the nation's social and economic problems. The act establishes a National Advisory Committee, and methods of collecting and disseminating information, and it places more emphasis on vocational education at the postsecondary level.

Skills training opportunities expanded to students who are at risk or have disabilities.

1969

American Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, signaling triumph of U.S. technology and leading to a greater emphasis on technical education.

1971

The 26th Amendment lowers the U.S. voting age from 21 to 18.

The U.S. Supreme Court upholds a measure to bus children in order to enforce integration in schools.

1975

Microsoft is founded by Paul Allen, 22, and Harvard dropout Bill Gates, 19.

1976

Amendments to the Vocational Education Act call for the National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) and initiate program improvements to promote sex equity.

The American Vocational Association celebrates its 50th anniversary.

1978

The Career Education Act establishes the comprehensive career development concept, which views the individual as progressing through various planned experiences.

1981

IBM sells its first personal computer. The operating system, MS-DOS, was developed by Bill Gates' Microsoft.

1983

A Nation at Risk is released. The report paints a dismal picture of the U.S. K-12 education system, drawing national attention toward core academic subjects.

American farmers are subsidized with a PIK (payment-in-kind) program.

1984

The Carl D, Perkins Act, named for the late chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee is signed by President Reagan. The legislation calls for modernizing career and technical education programs and improving access to them for all students.

Apple Computer, founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs, releases the Macintosh personal computer.

1986

The American Vocational Association moves its headquarters office from Washington D.C. to a new in Old Town, Alexandria, Va.

1989

The World Wide Web is introduced.

1990

President George Bush signs the Americans with Disabilities Act, barring discrimination against people with disabilities at work and in school.

Congress reauthorizes the Perkins Act, authorizing up to $1.6 billion a year through 1995 for career and technical education, including tech prep.

1994

President Bill Clinton signs the School-to-Work Opportunities Act, providing start-up funds to states for initiatives that connect education and careers for all students.

1998

Six shooting incidents in schools heighten American anxieties about youth violence and the gun culture.

President Clinton signs into law the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. He also signs the Workforce Investment Act, making one-stop career centers

the key vehicles for employment and training programs funded by the Labor Department.

After four years of legislative debate, Congress passes and President Clinton signs the reauthorization of the Perkins Act, which places high importance on State accountability plans.

The American Vocational Association changes its name to the Association for Career and Technical Education to better reflect modern school programs. Several state associations, student organizations and other groups in the field follow suit by using "career and technical education" in their names.

1999

Education emerges as a leading issue in the 2000 presidential campaign.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average tops 10,000 continuing a decade-long market boom. The average at the beginning of 1990 was 2,753.20.

Putting "Skills" first, VICA changes its name to SkillsUSA-VICA.

Sources

* The History and Growth of Vocational Education in America

* The World Almanac

* Association for Career and Technical Education

* The History of Channel

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