The career and technical educational field evolved throughout the century just as the world around it did, experiencing some highs and some lows. Here's a look at 100 years of career tech in the context of history.
Willis H. Carrier designs a practical system for indoor air conditioning
The Wright Brothers make their first flight in Kitty Hawk, N.C.
Advocates of "practical education" argue for boarder public school curriculum that prepares graduates for jobs.
The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education is founded.
Maria Montessori opens her first day care center in Rome. Her Montessori method of early childhood education, part of the progressive education movement, spreads throughout the world.
Henry Ford develops the first Model T automobile, which sells for $850.
Congress sets an eight-hour work day. Most Americans continue to work 10- to 12-hour days.
Sen. Hoke Smith chairs the commission on national aid for vocational education. World War I breaks out in Europe.
The Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act becomes law. It provides $1.7 million for career and technical education in 1917-18 and creates a federal board.
The United States enters World War I, sending 1 million troops abroad. The war ends in November; Congress passes legislation funding vocational education for veterans.
The 19th Amendment grants suffrage to American women.
John T. Scopes is found guilty of having taught evolution at a Dayton, Tenn., high school. He is fined $100.
The American Vocational Association is founded.
Vocational education enrollment exceeds 850,000; states get $7.2 million for programs.
Congress increases annual appropriations for home economics and agriculture education.
On Wall Street, the stock market crashes on Oct. 29, ushering in the Great Depression.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, elected to the first of four presidential terms, appoints Frances Perkins U.S. secretary of labor. She is the first female cabinet member.
The Dust Bowl hits U.S. western states, blowing 300 million tons of topsoil into the Atlantic Ocean and devastating farm land in Kansas, Texas, Colorado and Oklahoma.
The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), later the Congress of industrial Organizations, is formed to expand industrial unionism.
George-Deen Act authorizes an annual $12 million allotment for agriculture, home economics and trade and industrial education. Marketing occupations were recognized for the first time, receiving an authorization of $1.2 million.
Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, providing a minimum wage for the first time.
The U.S. enters World War II after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The war spurs Congress to pass Vocational Education for National Defense Acts to help prepare war industry workers, many of whom are women.
President Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill of Rights, providing veterans' benefits,
The George-Barden Act replaces the George-Deen Act and authorizes $28.5 million annually for the increased development of vocational education.
In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kan., the Supreme Court rules unanimously that racial segregation violates the 14th Amendment.
Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Ala., prompting a bus boycott and marking the unofficial beginning of the American civil rights movement.
Merger of America's two largest labor unions effected Dec. 5 under the name American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization. Merged AFL-CIO claims 15 million members.
The Health Amendments Act added practical nursing and health occupations programs to the list of vocational programs eligible to receive federal funds.
National Guardsmen, called out by Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus, barred nine black students from entering previously all-white Central High School in Little Rock.
President Kennedy forms the Peace Corps of Young Americans to educate and train people in developing countries.
The Area Redevelopment Act, an emergency measure born out of a recession, authorizes $4.5 million annually to be used for vocational education until 1965.
Vocational Education Act establishes set-asides for disabled and disadvantaged students.
The Civil Rights Act established basic human rights and responsibilities in the workplace and prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin or handicap. Other issues addressed equal employment opportunities, voting rights, equal education, fair housing and public accommodation.
Medicare established, broadening health care services for older Americans.
U.S. vocational education programs celebrate the first "Vocational Education Week."
The Vocational Amendments broaden the definition of vocational education to bring it closer to general education and provide vast sums of money to address the nation's social and economic problems. The act establishes a National Advisory Committee, and methods of collecting and disseminating information, and it places more emphasis on vocational education at the postsecondary level.
Skills training opportunities expanded to students who are at risk or have disabilities.
American Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, signaling triumph of U.S. technology and leading to a greater emphasis on technical education.
The 26th Amendment lowers the U.S. voting age from 21 to 18.
The U.S. Supreme Court upholds a measure to bus children in order to enforce integration in schools.
Microsoft is founded by Paul Allen, 22, and Harvard dropout Bill Gates, 19.
Amendments to the Vocational Education Act call for the National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) and initiate program improvements to promote sex equity.
The American Vocational Association celebrates its 50th anniversary.
The Career Education Act establishes the comprehensive career development concept, which views the individual as progressing through various planned experiences.
IBM sells its first personal computer. The operating system, MS-DOS, was developed by Bill Gates' Microsoft.
A Nation at Risk is released. The report paints a dismal picture of the U.S. K-12 education system, drawing national attention toward core academic subjects.
American farmers are subsidized with a PIK (payment-in-kind) program.
The Carl D, Perkins Act, named for the late chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee is signed by President Reagan. The legislation calls for modernizing career and technical education programs and improving access to them for all students.
Apple Computer, founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs, releases the Macintosh personal computer.
The American Vocational Association moves its headquarters office from Washington D.C. to a new in Old Town, Alexandria, Va.
The World Wide Web is introduced.
President George Bush signs the Americans with Disabilities Act, barring discrimination against people with disabilities at work and in school.
Congress reauthorizes the Perkins Act, authorizing up to $1.6 billion a year through 1995 for career and technical education, including tech prep.
President Bill Clinton signs the School-to-Work Opportunities Act, providing start-up funds to states for initiatives that connect education and careers for all students.
Six shooting incidents in schools heighten American anxieties about youth violence and the gun culture.
President Clinton signs into law the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. He also signs the Workforce Investment Act, making one-stop career centers
the key vehicles for employment and training programs funded by the Labor Department.
After four years of legislative debate, Congress passes and President Clinton signs the reauthorization of the Perkins Act, which places high importance on State accountability plans.
The American Vocational Association changes its name to the Association for Career and Technical Education to better reflect modern school programs. Several state associations, student organizations and other groups in the field follow suit by using "career and technical education" in their names.
Education emerges as a leading issue in the 2000 presidential campaign.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average tops 10,000 continuing a decade-long market boom. The average at the beginning of 1990 was 2,753.20.
Putting "Skills" first, VICA changes its name to SkillsUSA-VICA.
* The History and Growth of Vocational Education in America
* The World Almanac
* Association for Career and Technical Education
* The History of Channel