Child welfare agencies across the country have begun to focus on the issue of domestic violence and how it affects their caseloads.
The report that forms the basis for this article was prepared under contract with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), with additional support from HHS's Office of Community Services and the National Institute of Justice.
This article is a synopsis of the full report, Efforts by Child Welfare Agencies to Address Domestic Violence: The Experiences of Five Communities, available from the Urban Institute, located in Washington, D.C. The opinions expressed in this article and the report on which it is based are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policies or positions of HHS or of the Urban Institute or its funders or trustees.
Until recently, programs for family violence and abuse have responded to its two primary forms-child maltreatment and woman battering-through two entirely different service systems: child protective services (CPS) and domestic violence programs.l This separation is due, in part, to differences in when these service systems were established and how they have developed over time. CPS is by far the older, dating back to early in this century. Child welfare agencies have tended to view the mother's role in child abuse perpetrated by a male partner as "failure to protect" the child, rather than acknowledging that the child's safety might depend on addressing a situation that endangers both mother and child. Emergency shelters and other services for battered women first emerged in the mid- and late 1970s.
Their focus has been on helping battered women. Services directed specifically toward the children who accompany their mothers into these shelters are very recent and remain limited in many communities. Relations between the two systems have at times been strained, since a primary focus on helping the mother and a primary focus on protecting the child have not always been seen as compatible.
To understand better how mutually supportive relationships between the systems can help change child welfare practice around issues of domestic violence, the Urban Institute conducted a study of how child welfare agencies across the country are addressing the issue of domestic violence in their caseloads. This article provides a brief overview of the relationship between child maltreatment and domestic violence, a synopsis of the authors' five site visits to child welfare agencies, and a summary of the study's findings.
Overlap Between Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence
Researchers have used many methods to examine the degree of overlap between domestic violence and child maltreatment: national surveys, clinical samples, case record reviews, and reports by battered women. Early efforts to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment and domestic violence within the same family, summarized by Magen and colleagues, confirm that the overlap can be substantial, whether approached from the point of view of the child or that of the mother.2 Between 11 and 45 percent of children who are abused or neglected have a mother who is being abused, and between 37 and 63 percent of abused women have children who are being abused or neglected. Although the studies on which these ranges are based employ different methodologies and definitions of abuse and look at different populations, they consistently report a high level of overlap.
Existing studies of the overlap between domestic violence and child maltreatment are mostly limited to child abuse rather than child neglect, leaving gap in adequate information about the relationship between domestic violence and child neglect. This gap in knowledge may have implications for child welfare agencies, since neglect is far more prevalent in child welfare caseloads than is abuse.
The dynamics of violence within families can be very complex. …