Magazine article National Association of School Psychologists. Communique

Best Practices in Interventions for Students with Reading Problems

Magazine article National Association of School Psychologists. Communique

Best Practices in Interventions for Students with Reading Problems

Article excerpt



Many individuals have difficulty acquiring literacy skills due to an inappropriate and insufficient amount of instruction. The critical components of reading include phoneme awareness, letter-sound correspondences, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Students may either be at the acquisition, fluency, generalization, or adaptation phase of learning these critical skills.

It is important that assessment is used to target specific areas of need so that appropriate types and amounts of instruction are implemented. This can be accomplished through a three-tiered response to intervention model. Implementation of a three-tiered response to intervention model may help identify students who are not responding to large group general instruction (tier 1) practices. Students who are not responding to tier 3 level of services may need tier 2 intensive small group instruction and students who are not responsive to tier 2 services may need more intensive one-to-one instruction tier 3 services. Frequency of assessment varies according to tier of service. More progress monitoring occurs in tier 2 and 3 than in tier 1. Types of reading assessments that are conducted are those that can be directly liked to targeting reading instruction. Within a three-tiered response to intervention model, institutions' expectations for reading performance can be compared to students' actual reading performance. The reasons for the discrepancy can be identified in terms of types and amount of instruction that is being implemented.

There are various evidence-based instructional techniques and programs that may be used across three tiers of service. Some techniques can be used to teach a multitude of reading skills while others are de signed to target a specific reading skill. For instance, flashcard drill techniques can be used to teach letter-sound correspondences, reading fluency, and vocabulary skills. Story maps are designed to help students comprehend critical elements of text such as characters, setting, plot, and resolution. Many of these techniques and methods employ modeling/demonstration, verbal prompting, corrective feedback, opportunities to respond/repeated practice, and shaping and reinforcing reading behavior. These techniques and methods need to be tested for their effectiveness in meeting the needs of particular individuals that school psychologists and educators work with in their day-to-day practice.

Sample Websites

iColorín Colorado!

Intervention Central

LD Online

Reading Rockets

Sample Books and Book Chapters

Joseph, L. M. (2006). Understanding, assessing, and intervening on reading problems: A guide for school psychologists and other educational consultants. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Haager, D., Klingner, J., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Evidence-based reading practices for response to intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Sample School Psychology Review Articles

Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Reading Proficiency in Low-Performing, High-Poverty Schools

Predictive Accuracy of Nonsense Word Fluency for English Language Learners

Sample COMMUNIQUÉ Articles

School Psychologists and Student Reading Achievement

The Effects of Evidence-Based Reading Intervention on Socially Important Outcomes

Sample School Psychology Forum: Research in Practice Articles

Identifying Effective School-Based Reading Interventions: A Review of the Brief Experimental Analysis Literature

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