Magazine article National Association of School Psychologists. Communique

Referencing Electronic Books and Online Material

Magazine article National Association of School Psychologists. Communique

Referencing Electronic Books and Online Material

Article excerpt

In this column, we cover how to reference electronic books and different types of online and audiovisual media.

Some of the changes of interest to potential writers involve the proper citation of digital books as well as books or excerpts/chapters from books that may have been retrieved online. According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009), when citing an entire online book, use the following reference format at the end of your paper:

Author, A. B. (1992). Title of work. Retrieved from

Additionally, digital object identifiers (DOIs) should be used instead of Web links when they are available. Use one of the following formats, depending on whether you are referencing the whole book or only a chapter:

Author, A. B., 8c Author, B. C. (2005) . Title of work, doi: xxxxx

Author, A., 8c Author, B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In B. Editor 8c C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi: xxxxxxxx

Note that within the body of your paper, you would simply cite the author(s) and publication year as regularly cited according to APA format.

Many authors are curious about how to reference a digital book. This depends upon whether or not the source is an electronic version of a print book or an electronic-only book. When referencing an electronic version of a print book, you wouldinclude abracketednote specifying which version was used, like so:

Author, W. V. (2009). Bereavement: A life course [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http:// www.ebookstore .com/html/index asp

Author, X. Y. (2011). Depression in children [Adobe Digital Editions version], doi: 10.2037/0071393743

Finally, if you are citing an electroniconly book, the following format would be used, without the bracketed description of the version:

Author, X. Y., Author, Y Z., 8c Author, B. V. (2010). Relationships with fathers. Retrieved from

Other online media should be referenced with similar formats. See section 7.11 of the publication manual for detailed reference examples for blog comments, electronic mailing lists, and more (APA, 2009, pp. 214-215). Screen names can be used if the author's real name is unknown, which is often the case on blog comments and online forums. The general form for referencing online materials is as follows:

Author, A. B. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Medium or type of post]. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.