Magazine article Behavioral Healthcare Executive

The Evolution of Community Psychiatry

Magazine article Behavioral Healthcare Executive

The Evolution of Community Psychiatry

Article excerpt

Not long ago, I attended the winter meeting of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists in Phoenix, a meeting built on the theme of "Innovations in Public Service Psychiatry." Near the end of the meeting, the moderator, Ken Thompson, MD, invited the audience to share reflections on the conference itself and on the practice of community psychiatry.

After a few individuals rose to speak, the microphone went to Nat Sandler, MD, an unassuming Kentuckian. Nat asked an important question about the future of community psychiatry, but set the stage for it by giving a brief history of his long career in the field. Even more than his question, it was this history that I found striking - and worthy of a story.

Psychiatrist as psychotherapist

From the time he was discharged from the U.S. Navy, Nat Sandler said that he had invested heavily in his career. He was among the first to be awarded a fellowship in community psychiatry and later went on to earn an MPH.

At the start of his career as a psychiatrist, Nat primarily offered dynamic psychotherapy to his patients and, in some cases, he adopted more of an analytical approach. At the time, these were a psychiatrist's treatments of choice for people diagnosed with mental illnesses. Medications were considered secondary to psychotherapy.

Most of the people Nat saw in the local mental health center in Kentucky had been diagnosed with "neurotic" disorders, plus depression, anxiety, and to a lesser degree, psychotic depression. Most disorders were placed on a continuum between neurotic and psychotic. Mothers were seen as the cause of most problems and were referred to as "schizophenagenic mothers." Before the advent of lithium, people with bipolar disorders were diagnosed as schizophrenics.

The psychiatrist was the leader of the psychiatric treatment team. The team was made up of psychologists who did testing, social workers who completed histories, and nurses who did traditional nursing duties. The psychiatrist was the primary psychotherapist and diagnostician.

Psychiatrist as prescrlber

As time passed and his career continued, Nat found that his role shifted. Medications improved and played a more central role in treatment. The psychologists and the social workers were trained in psychotherapy and could perform it as well as, or in some cases even better than, the psychiatrist could. While the psychiatrist continued to lead the development and direction of the treatment program, Nat found tnat role of the psychiatrist evolved into that of "prescriber of pills" since the psychiatrist was the only member of tiie treatment team who could prescribe medications.

With the deinstitutionalization movement, people were released in droves from state hospitals. Talk therapy was no longer the treatment of choice; instead, it took a back seat to medications. This, says Nat, pushed the psychiatrist further into the role of the primary diagnostician and prescriber. At this point, Nat came to feel that his role was even less about treatment and even more about signing ofFon the treatment plan so the services provided by other roles could qualify for financial reimbursement.

And, in the last seven or eight years, Nat sees that nurse practitioners have gained die ability to prescribe and that psychologists have been authorized to prescribe in two states.

Psychiatry's role redefined

Before asking his question, Nat spent time in die community psychiatry meeting hearing about how peers are being added to the behavioral health workforce because they are effective at promoting recovery. …

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