Magazine article The Times Higher Education Supplement : THE

Commencement, Not Graduation

Magazine article The Times Higher Education Supplement : THE

Commencement, Not Graduation

Article excerpt

Barbara Stephens finds few clear pointers for the UK in the sobering tale of American dropout rates.

Completing College: Rethinking Institutional Action

By Vincent Tinto

University of Chicago Press

283pp, Pounds 22.50

ISBN 9780226804521

Published 11 May 2012

Vincent Tinto is frequently referenced in discussions about student retention and success in higher education, and he starts by setting out his credentials - 36 years of research into the field, plus a groundbreaking book, Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition (1983), which sought to demonstrate the links between an institution's academic and social environment and the success of its students. This led to research on effective institutional action, which in turn has informed much of the work on student retention and success in the UK. Indeed, Tinto gave a virtual presentation at the Higher Education Academy conference on the What Works? project in March.

I therefore approached this book with a great deal of interest. Tinto begins by setting out his objective - to suggest how his research and that of others can be brought together in a framework for institutional action. His premise is that to date, institutional actions have been primarily focused on the periphery of institutional activity, whereas to be really effective they need to be focused on the classroom. He specifically says that the book's target audience is not just the research community but also academic faculty members and administrators.

However, a psychological barrier for British readers aiming to learn from Tinto's experience is that some of the US statistics he quotes on student retention and completion are quite shocking from the UK perspective. Politicians, the media and the higher education sector in this country agonised when the Higher Education Statistics Agency reported a drop in students progressing from their first to their second years from 92.9 per cent to 92.6 per cent in 2007: here, Tinto reports data indicating that just 76.8 per cent of students in US public universities and 79.1 per cent of those in private not-for-profit institutions progressed.

Numbers are equally low for completions - Tinto cites statistics showing that barely half of students in four-year colleges in the US gain a bachelor's degree in six years, and only 63 per cent do so at all. Community or two-year colleges perform even more poorly, with only 40 per cent of students achieving a bachelor's degree, associate degree or certificate.

It may well be that there are unexpected factors at play that affect these statistics, but unless you are very knowledgeable about the vagaries of the US sector, it is difficult to identify them. …

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