In 1985, Utah Technical College had an enrollment of a few thousand students and general education courses that students took to get out of the way. Today, the school has become Utah Valley University, one of the largest public institutions of higher education in the state, offering close to sixty bachelor's degree programs and three master's degree programs, and topping 30,000 in enrollment last year. The philosophy department alone has fourteen full-time faculty members. Robust population growth - Utah is the second fastest growing state in the nation - has been the major reason for this rapid evolution, but there has been another factor, a quietly changing campus culture.
"WHAT WAS BEAUTIFUL ABOUT METZSCHU IS THAT HE SHOOK THE FOUNDATIONS FOR ME. I believe in God, I'm religious, but I love those moments when I have to struggle. They build me the most. At times, when we were discussing free will versus determinism in class, it was hard to go because of where I knew the discussion would take me. But I did, I made myself."
Samuel Grenny, Utah Valley University
Twenty-five years ago, "Ethics and Values," a new and rigorous humanities course at Utah Technical College required for all students, began to raise the academic bar. Eventually, the school became Utah Valley State College and was on its way to becoming a university. And the course? It has enrolled 100,000 students and garnered national recognition, including the prestigious Theodore M. Hesburgh Award for its leadership in promoting ethical thinking.
When you stand outside the Liberal Arts Building on the sprawling urban campus of Utah Valley University in Orem, about forty miles south of Salt Lake City, you quickly notice how new everything looks - new buildings, new walkways, new trees, and lots of young faces streaming by. It's hard to imagine this was once a small technical college that had, according to one philosophy professor, a serious problem. "I saw that students came to the Technical College to get their 'general education' credits cheaply and easily," says Professor Elaine Englehardt. "They took the path of least resistance - the easiest teacher teaching the easiest course at the most convenient time."
Englehardt set out to develop a humanities course that she believed would matter to students, one focusing on ethics and values. In her graduate philosophy classes at the University of Utah, she had seen the study of moral philosophy "open minds that had been closed." She wanted a formal study of ethics as the foundation, but she also wanted texts from religion, history, and literature. Students would be steeped in the ideas of great moral thinkers and then consider complex topics such as abortion, war, corporate responsibility, and homosexuality from the point of view of historians, novelists, and religious writers.
With advice from faculty and administrators, and feedback from early, unsuccessful grant applications to NEH, Englehardt refined the course, settling on key readings from the Bible, Aristotle, Kant, Hobbes, Mill, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and others, and contemporary philosophers Peter Singer and Carol Gilligan. When students turned to topical areas such as abortion, for example, they would read a variety of texts, including Justice Blackmun's decision in Roe v. Wade, Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vitae, Gwendolyn Brooks's poem "The Mother," and Ernest Hemingway's short story "Hills Like White Elephants." Equipped with these multiple views, students then discussed, debated - and decided - the issue for themselves.
Questioning may seem like second nature to most eighteen-year-olds, but this is Utah County, which is more than 80 percent Mormon and strikes many observers as seriously orthodox. A native of the state and a member of the Mormon faith, Englehardt recognized that Utah County teenagers usually grow up hearing one point of view. "They can be shocked when they leave home and go out into the world," she said. …