Magazine article National Parks

Seeing Green

Magazine article National Parks

Seeing Green

Article excerpt

Decades of conservation efforts pay off for the endangered green sea turtle.

Few people visit east key, a tiny, sandy island in Dry Tortugas National Park, situated at the farthest end of the Florida Keys. Roughly 1,300 feet long and 300 feet wide, the island is off-limits to the general public. But last summer Kristen Hart spent a night there doing some "very strange babysitting," as she describes it. A research ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, Hart didn't know if any nesting turtles would show up at the site that day. But one by one, a band of green sea turtles and one loggerhead turtle emerged from the sea and lumbered around the beach looking for perfect nesting spots. First a handful arrived, and then a few more joined them, until there were ten in all, wandering around and digging in the sand.

"It was pretty amazing and hysterical watching these turtles crawl onto the beach in the middle of the night. They were almost bumping into each other," Hart says. "Some of the females are many years older than I am, so you wonder, 'Where have they been? What have they seen?' And here they are on this little beach with me."

She was there all night, taking blood and tissue samples and drawing symbols on the turtles' shells to keep track of who was who. Most of the turtles laid their eggs and left, but one was still on the beach as the sun rose. "It was almost like a dream," she said.

Not so long ago, green turtle soup was a delicacy, turtles were harvested around the world, and in many places, the species was close to extinction. But decades of conservation efforts have dramatically changed the turtles' fortunes. In 1989, biologists counted only 464 nests on 26 "index" beaches in Florida, the state with the largest green sea turtle population. Last year, researchers at the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission documented 25,000 nests on the same beaches.

It's one of the greatest conservation success stories of our time, says David Godfrey, executive director of Sea Turtle Conservancy. The turnaround started in 1978 when turtles were officially declared endangered and came off the menu in the United States. Other factors contributing to the turtles' banner reproductive year include a globalthough not universal-ban on fishing for turtles, and laws that prohibit certain commercial fishing nets or that require nets to have trapdoors for turtles. (See box, next page.) Other protective measures limit activity that encroaches on turtle habitat and restrict artificial light, which can disorient turtles during nesting season.

That so much effort has been poured into saving green sea turtles may have something to do with the devotion of proponents, who (with the barest prodding) will wax poetic on the beauty and mystery of the creature.

"Watching turtles crawl out of the sea and dig holes in the sand the way they've done for too million years, hearing them breathing then disappearing as silently as they came back into the sea-it's just an incredible thing," says Godfrey.

The fossil record shows that these so-called living dinosaurs are more than 200 million years old, but that's just the beginning of their compelling story. They are fundamentally sea animals, yet they breathe air and lay their eggs on land. The only vegetarian sea turtles, green turtles eat primarily sea grass, which accounts for their color and their name. They can take 25 years or more to reach adulthood, growing as big as dining tables. …

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