Magazine article New Internationalist

A History of Sudan (Sudan's Relationship with Uganda)

Magazine article New Internationalist

A History of Sudan (Sudan's Relationship with Uganda)

Article excerpt

A History of Sudan

The conflict in Sudan is often portrayed as being between the prosperous Arab North and the impoverished and neglected Christian South. But this is too simplistic. Sudan is a country of great variety; many different ethnic groups exist side by side and alliances are formed for many different reasons.

But there is a difference between North and South which was exacerbated under British colonial rule. If the civil war is ever to end it will need a concerted effort on the part of the international community and the surrounding countries.

1821 Turco - Egyptian army conquers central and northern Sudan.

1885 the seige of Khartoum ends with the death of General Gordon, leading the Egyptian forces against the Mahdi, a religious leader. Mahdist state established.

1892 the Belgians capture Western Equatoria - including parts of northern Uganda.

1898 Anglo - Egyptian forces under General Kitchener defeat the Mahdist forces at Omdurman and establish an Anglo - Egyptian 'condominium' to run the country. The British recognize North and South as separate entities but fail to develop local Southern economic and administrative structures.

Between 1930 and 1940 nationalist politics develop rapidly in the North. Southern Sudan is less keen on independence, as people are unprepared and unconsulted. In 1955 the first civil war begins.

In 1956 Sudan becomes independent. General Abboud takes over in 1958 and begins a programme of Islamization. In 1963 the Anyanya movement for Southern secession is formed.

1965 There is a civilian government. 1969 Colonel Jafar Mohammed Nimeiri takes power in a military coup, promising socialism, but he soon finds himself changing his aims to accomodate the powerful Islamic lobby.

The Addis Ababa agreement in 1972 ends the war in Sudan, promising development and autonomy in the South. …

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