Magazine article Teach

80 DEGREES NORTH: LESSON FOUR: The Changing Arctic

Magazine article Teach

80 DEGREES NORTH: LESSON FOUR: The Changing Arctic

Article excerpt

80Degrees North tells the remarkable story of Canada's first Arctic Expedition that began over 100 years ago. Led by the noted and controversial Arctic explorer, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, the expedition members experienced extreme conditions and staggering challenges. The flagship of the expedition, the Karluk, became caught in the ice and was lost early on. Twenty-two individuals and the ship's mascot, a cat, survived. The ship's captain, Robert Bartlett, trekked hundreds of miles over the ice in harsh conditions to effect the rescue. Divided into two parties, North and South, each had a separate mandate. The Southern Party, led by Dr. R.M. Anderson, noted zoologist and Stefansson's partner on a previous expedition, examined flora and fauna and mapped the Mackenzie River Delta. The Northern Party, led by Stefansson, explored the Western Arctic searching for new lands to be claimed for Canada and Britain in a bid to maintain sovereignty over the north. Despite setbacks and even, tragedy, both parties managed to fulfill their objectives. In particular, the findings of the Southern Party provided the basis of knowledge for Canadian scientists and researchers of the Arctic and Inuit peoples for decades to come.

FOR GRADES

9 TO 12

SUBJECTS

Geography, History, Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, Current Aboriginal Issues in Canada, Aboriginal Beliefs, Values, and Aspirations in Contemporary Society

DURATION

3 to 4 classes

TERMINOLOGY

Aboriginal: refers to all indigenous peoples in Canada, including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit

First Nation: refers to all the Aboriginal nations of North America (formerly tribes and includes over 65 different languages) except the Métis and Inuit

Métis: refers to Aboriginal people who are of First Nations and French descent

Inuit: refers to Aboriginal people who speak Inuktitut and live in Arctic Canada

Copper Inuit: refers to a specific group of Canadian Inuit people who relied on the use of native copper of the region

Inupiat: refers to a specific group of Alaska Native people

INTRODUCTION

Previously in Lesson One, students described various aspects of Aboriginal life prior to contact with Europeans, for example, traditional economies, spirituality, relationship with the environment, and political organization, including how their identity as custodians and protectors of the land inspired their historical commitment to remaining on their lands.

In this lesson, which highlights the geographic concept of patterns and trends, students will build on what they learned in Lesson One, exploring how changes over time, including contact with Europeans and climate change, are affecting the Inuit in many ways. Students will use what they learned in Lesson Two (about the geography of the Arctic), as well as research to supplement their knowledge of climate change, to examine its effects on Canada's North and the Inuit communities. They examine the issue through the historical lens of cause and consequence.

Finally, they will write a response to two quotes. They will reflect on how the Inuit worldview reveals a contemporary commitment to caring for, and remaining on, the land, and that affects their contemporary attitudes to climate change. They will compare this to other attitudes about the land and natural resources in the North.

MATERAILS REQUIRED

Graphic novel: 80 Degrees North

Satellite image of Canada at night, for example, www.nightearth.com

Online video about Arctic Council: www.international. ac.ca/arctic-arctiaue/council video-conseil video. aspx?lana=ena

Access to library resources and computers with Internet access

Writing paper and supplies

EXPECTATIONS/OUTCOMES

The overall expectations listed below serve as an entry point for teachers. Teachers are encouraged to make connections to specific expectations in their region and grade. Students will:

* Use the concepts of patterns and trends when considering geographic issues

* Analyze significant aspects and effects of the interactions between Aboriginal peoples and European colonists

* Assess the extent to which Canadian identity and culture have been influenced by Aboriginal peoples

* Use the concept of cause and consequence when considering the climate change and its effects

* Analyze some environmental, economic, social, and political impacts of changes in some of Earth's physical processes, specifically Canada's climate

* Analyze interrelationships between Canada's physical characteristics and various human activities that they support

* Demonstrate an understanding that the Inuit peoples' identity as custodians and protectors of the land inspires their historical and contemporary commitment to remaining on their lands

* Analyze environmental, economic, social, and/ or political implications of different ideas and beliefs about the value of Canada's natural environment, and explain how these ideas/ beliefs affect the use and protection of Canada's natural assets

STEP ONE

TEACHER-DIRECTED DISCUSSION

Review the topics covered in Lesson One with the students, specifically various aspects of Inuit life prior to contact with Europeans, for example, traditional economies, spirituality, relationship with the environment, and political organization, including how their identity as custodians and protectors of the land inspired their historical commitment to remaining on their lands. …

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