Magazine article Liberal Education

Bridging the Divides at the Heart of Democracy

Magazine article Liberal Education

Bridging the Divides at the Heart of Democracy

Article excerpt

AT THE OPENING PLENARY OF AAC&U's 2018 annual meeting, "Can Higher Education Recapture the Elusive American Dream?," I had the privilege of facilitating a panel discussion entitled "Identity Matters: Realizing the American Dream." The panelists, Linda Martín Alcoff, professor of philosophy at Hunter College-City University of New York; Naomi M. Barry-Pérez, director of civil rights for the US Department of Labor; Tamara Draut, vice president for policy and research at the public policy organization Demos; and Wes Moore, CEO of the poverty-fighting organization the Robin Hood Foundation, brilliantly wove their personal narratives into their insights on higher education's role in advancing the American Dream.

The panelists' responses to my questions reflected several intersecting themes-the profound impact of the disinvestment in public higher education in the United States, despite the fact that education remains the most powerful catalyst for social mobility; the decline of economic diversity among students at the country's top public institutions, fueled in part by the pursuit of rankings in US News and World Report; and the ways in which the transition away from the notion of higher education as a public good toward its being considered a private commodity has led to the decoupling of higher education from the American Dream. Underlying each comment was a concern for the function of colleges and universities as democratic institutions, alongside a recognition of the need to identify and overcome the institutional barriers that prevent offering the type of education that best serves the needs of all students.

Yet, like many successful panels, this one was not free from dissent among participants. Professor Alcoff questioned the construct of the American Dream and its false implication that with hard work, anyone can achieve success and gain upward economic mobility. This ideal, she maintained, fails to account for a pervasive institutional order that guarantees the success of some only by ensuring the failure of others. It is a "system of reality" highlighted by James Baldwin in his famous debate with William F. Buckley in 1965, held in the Cambridge Union at Cambridge University, on the notion that "the American Dream is at the expense of the American Negro." Baldwin revealed to his audience: "It comes as a great shock around the age of 5, 6 or 7 to discover that the flag to which you have pledged allegiance, along with everybody else, has not pledged allegiance to you. . . . It comes as a great shock to discover that the country which is your birthplace and to which you owe your life and identity has not, in its whole system of reality, evolved any place for you."1 His words call to mind an observation he made in 1961, challenging the rhetoric that supports the ideal of equal opportunity for all in America:

No other country can afford to dream of a Plymouth and a wife and a house with a fence and the children growing up safely to go to college and to become executives, and then to marry and have the Plymouth and the house and so forth. A great many people do not live this way and cannot imagine it, and do not know that when we talk about "democracy," this is what we mean.2

More than five decades later, the debate over whether the American Dream is available to some only at the expense of others rages on. …

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